What If I Take Too Much
An overdose of a large number of metformin tablets can cause serious health problems. The symptoms are severe and quick to appear.
Urgent advice: Go to A& E now if:
- you take too many metformin tablets
Take the metformin packet or leaflet inside it, plus any remaining medicine, with you.
Like all medicines, metformin can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them.
Exercise Food And Alcohol
For people with type 1 diabetes, maintaining the correct blood glucose level involves balancing how much insulin you inject, the amount of food you eat, and how much energy you burn during exercise.
Hypoglycaemia may occur if you’ve taken your dose of insulin as usual, but your carbohydrate intake is lower than normal or has been used up more quickly. This may happen if you delay or miss a meal or snack, don’t eat enough carbohydrate, or exercise more than usual.
People with diabetes who’ve drunk too much alcohol, or drank alcohol on an empty stomach, can also get hypoglycaemia.
However, it’s not always possible to identify why a particular episode of hypoglycaemia has occurred, and sometimes it happens for no obvious reason.
How Can I Prevent Hypoglycemic Episodes
The key to preventing hypoglycemic events is managing diabetes:
- Follow your healthcare providers instructions about food and exercise.
- Track your blood sugar regularly, including before and after meals, before and after exercise and before bed.
- Take all your medications exactly as prescribed.
- When you do have a hypoglycemic event, write it down. Include details such as the time, what you ate recently, whether you exercised, the symptoms and your glucose level.
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More Benefits Of Soluble Fiber
Soluble fiber can help lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and regulate blood sugar in diabetes.
Its also possible to add too much fiber to your diet too quickly, which can be hard on the system. So go slow and make sure youre choosing the right type. Foods high in non-fermentable soluble fiber include:
- Vegetables: Carrot, eggplant, green beans, okra, potato , summer squash, sweet potato, zucchini
- Fruit: Banana, blueberries, kiwi, orange, raspberry, strawberry
- Protein: Peanuts, sunflower seeds, walnuts
- Grains: Oatmeal
Treating Low Blood Sugar Levels
The diabetes health care team will give you clear guidelines about how to treat hypoglycemia, depending on the severity of the symptoms.
If it’s convenient, test the blood sugar levels before treating your child to confirm that the symptoms are due to hypoglycemia. If blood sugar can’t be checked immediately, don’t delay treating your child’s symptoms you can always do a test after getting the blood sugar back into the normal range.
When blood sugar levels are low, the goal is to get them back up quickly. To do that, give your child sugar or sugary foods that raise the blood glucose level quickly. In general, treatment for hypoglycemia involves:
- having your child eat or drink a form of glucose that works fast, like regular soda, orange juice, or cake frostingor having your child take special tablets or gels that contain glucose. Generally, symptoms will stop about 10 minutes after your child takes sugar.
- rechecking your child’s blood sugar to make sure that the level is no longer low and giving your child food to help prevent the blood sugar from dropping again
- giving glucagon , if symptoms are severe or get worse after your child is given sugar by mouth
For more severe cases of hypoglycemia in which seizures or loss of consciousness happen, giving sugar by mouth may be very difficult or even dangerous. In that case, a glucagon injection should be given.
When possible, adult family members and your child’s caregivers and school staff should know:
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Potential Drugs Offer Relief Of Symptoms Of Gastroparesis
There are also some medications that have been approved for other uses that doctors are increasingly trying in patients who have gastroparesis, says Dr. Grover. Aprepitant, for example, is approved to treat the nausea and vomiting that commonly arises following cancer chemotherapy.
This medication is one that he often considers prescribing to patients who are experiencing the bloating, abdominal pain and vomiting brought about from diabetic gastroparesis. However, it has had mixed results in reducing nausea.
I tell my patients that aprepitant hasnt been approved to treat their condition per se but that I have found it to improve similar symptoms in many other patients, says Dr. Grover. Another drug, prucalopride, approved for constipation, seems to improve digestion. In the most recent study,5 prucalopride seems to have increased gastric motility, which accelerated gastric emptying. If this is confirmed in larger studies that are underway, this drug will be a game changerso stay tuned.
Several new drugs are currently under investigation, says Dr. Camilleri, although the chance of approval is still years away. One is called velusetrag, and another is TAK-906. The former works in the same way as prucalopride while the latter may help lessen many of the symptoms of GI distress.
Can Diabetic Ketoacidosis Be Prevented Or Avoided
If you have diabetes, there are some things you can do to watch for diabetic ketoacidosis. When youre sick, watch your blood sugar level very closely so it doesnt get too high or too low. Ask your doctor what your critical blood sugar level is. Most patients should watch their glucose levels closely when they are more than 250 mg per dL.
When youre sick or stressed, you should check your blood sugar level more often than normal . If your blood sugar reaches a critical level, check it every 1 to 2 hours. Ask your doctor if you should test your blood sugar level during the night.
You should also test your urine for ketones every few hours if youre sick, stressed, or if your blood sugar level is more than 250 mg per dL.
You should talk to your doctor to develop a plan if your blood sugar level gets too high. Make sure that you know how to reach your doctor in an emergency.
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What Complications Are Associated With Dumping Syndrome
Most people living with dumping syndrome experience only mild symptoms. If you have more severe symptoms, it can be difficult to maintain your weight. Weight loss can occur when nutrients pass out of your GI tract faster than they can be absorbed. If dietary and medication changes are not enough to manage your dumping syndrome, your doctor may recommend surgery. However, surgery to correct dumping syndrome has a low success rate. Doctors recommend surgery only as a last resort.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- Ive never been diagnosed with diabetes, but I have many of the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Do I have diabetes?
- Im having a hard time controlling my blood sugar levels. Am I at risk of diabetic ketoacidosis?
- Will diet and exercise help me to avoid diabetic ketoacidosis?
- If I notice Im having symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis, what should I do first?
- Is it safe for me to exercise?
- How often should I check my blood sugar level if Im sick?
- What is the best way for me to check the ketone level in my body?
- I missed a dose of insulin. Should I start testing my blood sugar level and ketone level right away?
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What Makes Blood Glucose Go Up Or Down
Food, diabetes medicines, and physical activity have the most effect on blood glucose levels most of the time, but there are other things that can raise or lower blood glucose. Heres a list of some of what can make your blood glucose go up, go down, or go down too much resulting in hypoglycemia. UP Eating carbohydrate-containing foods Not taking the diabetes medicines you need Not taking enough of the diabetes medicines youve been prescribed Taking certain non-diabetesrelated medicines, such as steroids, some oral contraceptives, laxatives , or diuretics Eating meals or snacks too close to each other Inactivity Infection or other illness Changes in hormone levels Stress DOWN Taking diabetes medicines Being physically active Drinking alcohol Taking certain non-diabetesrelated medicines DOWN TOO LOW Not eating enough carbohydrate Taking too high a dose of diabetes medicine Taking certain non-diabetesrelated medicines such as warfarin and some antibiotics Eating meals or snacks too far apart from each other Drinking alcohol, especially on an empty stomach Being more physically active than usual Continue reading > >
How Is Hypoglycemia Diagnosed
The only way to know if you have hypoglycemia is to check your blood sugar with a blood glucose meter. Its a small machine that measures blood sugar. Most of these devices use a tiny prick of the finger to take a small amount of blood.
People with hypoglycemia unawareness may need a continuous glucose monitor. These wearable devices measure glucose every few minutes, day and night. An alarm sounds if blood sugar drops too low.
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What Are The Causes Of Diabetes Stomach Pain
Diabetes stomach pain might be caused by a number of complications, especially in patients who fail to control their blood sugar levels. Gastroparesis defines a condition when the stomach retains food too long, leading to stomach pain in some patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis refers to a metabolic disorder in type one diabetics that might produce stomach pain. Some patients who suffer diabetes stomach pain suffer from a central nervous system disorder of the intestinal nerves, which is more common in people with longstanding diabetes.
Gastroparesis may cause diabetes stomach pain from high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period of time. This condition occurs because food does not pass from the stomach properly, leading to vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain. Patients who also suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease might suffer frequent bouts of heartburn and gastroparesis. Treatment for this form of stomach pain might include eating smaller meals more frequently and avoiding fatty foods and a high-fiber diet, which seems to aggravate the condition.
What Is The Outlook For People With Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia can be managed when you and your healthcare provider understand what causes your blood sugar to go down. Give your healthcare provider as much information as possible about any hypoglycemic episodes. Fixing the problem may be as simple as changing the times you take medication, eat and exercise. Minor changes to the types of food you eat may also help.
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Dietary Management Is Key To Improving Gi Symptoms
For some individuals the easiest method for feeling bettera semi-liquid dietcan be hard to implement, says Dr. Grover. The way to reduce most of the unpleasant symptoms is to blend up solid food into a soft paste, which solves the problem of poor gastric emptying, but this is often unappealing and so not readily embraced.
Dr. Camilleri agrees liquids and blended solid foods are often much better tolerated but his patients find it distasteful. So hell often say, Consider this: blending up a peanut butter sandwich is a better option than tube feeding, which may happen if the symptoms get bad and last long enough. Often, individuals who are very rigorous with their diet are able to avoid the need for medications altogether,6 the doctors point out.
Many patientsabout 80%can avoid tube feeding by adjusting your diet to facilitate speedy gastric emptying.6 Dr. Camilleri says: Gastroparesis is a chronic condition that will probably not go away but also isn’t likely to get worse.
Be aware of the potential for nutrient deficiencies of some minerals, like copper and zinc,6 says Dr. Grover. This is more likely to occur when the condition has been present a long time. He also warns against any suggestion that you are a candidate for gastric bypass surgery or removing the stomach as a way to manage the symptoms. This often replaces one problem with another, he says.
Neither doctor has any financial conflicts regarding this discussion.
How Do I Treat An Episode Of Hypoglycemia
The American Diabetes Association recommends the 15-15 rule for an episode of hypoglycemia:
- Eat or drink 15 grams of carbs to raise your blood sugar.
- After 15 minutes, check your blood sugar.
- If its still below 70 mg/dL, have another 15 grams of carbs.
- Repeat until your blood sugar is at least 70 mg/dL.
If you have symptoms of hypoglycemia but cant test your blood sugar, use the 15-15 rule until you feel better.
Note: Children need fewer grams of carbs. Check with your healthcare provider.
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Can A Change In Diet Cause Stomach Pain
A change in your diet can cause stomach pain for a variety of reasons. Indigestion, too much or too little fiber, food intolerance or food allergy can result in digestive distress and can occur when the foods you eat are different than the ones you are accustomed to . In addition, changing how much or how often you eat can also lead to stomach pain. Seek the advice of a dietitian or your health care provider before changing your diet or if a change in diet causes gastrointestinal issues.
If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.
Injectables And Blood Sugar Levels
A newer class of injectable medications, GLP-1 agonists Byetta and Victoza, can cause nausea and vomiting. Prescribers agree that this, too, is often dose-related.
“Start low and go slow,” DeFronzo says. “Byetta should be taken 30-45 minutes before a meal. Taking it right before or with the meal helps some. Then I’ll slowly move it back to 30-45 minutes before eating to get the best response.” Aronne has found that some people tolerate one injectable medication better than another, so he will have his patients try different brands.
Because GLP-1 agonists slow down stomach emptying, they can cause a feeling of fullness. ” may think something is wrong, but they’re just full and not used to that feeling,” DeFronzo says. The sensation can prevent overeating if one responds and stops eating.
“I can’t eat large amounts of food anymore,” says Martin Blank, PWD type 2, of Brooklyn Heights, New York. “It used to be I could never get filled up. Now I get this full feeling. Once that hits, I pick up my food to eat more and I can’t.”
“Some people like that feeling some don’t,” Aronne says. “It’s all about what someone can tolerate. You can’t always go by the book you go by the person.”
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Digestive Endocrine And Circulatory Systems
After you eat, your digestive system breaks down carbohydrates and turns them into glucose. Essentially, glucose is your bodys fuel source.
As your sugar levels rise, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin, which helps glucose get taken up and used by cells throughout your body. If you have insulin-dependent diabetes, you must take the right about of insulin to get the job done.
Any excess glucose goes to your liver for storage.
When you go a few hours without eating, blood sugar levels go down. If you have a healthy pancreas, it releases a hormone called glucagon to make up for the absence of food. This hormone tells your liver to process the stored sugars and release them into your bloodstream.
If everything works as it should, your blood sugar levels should remain in the normal range until your next meal.
Insufficient blood sugar levels can cause a rapid heartbeat and heart palpitations. However, even if you have diabetes, you may not always have obvious symptoms of low blood sugar. This is a potentially dangerous condition called hypoglycemia unawareness. It happens when you experience low blood sugar so often that it changes your bodys response to it.
Normally, low blood sugar causes your body to release stress hormones, such as epinephrine. Epinephrine is responsible for those early warning signs, like hunger and shakiness.
Drugs That Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels
Knowing the drugs that can affect blood glucose levels is essential in properly caring for your diabetes patients. Some medicines raise blood sugar in patients while others might lower their levels. However, not all drugs affect patients the same way. 390 Drugs that Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels is also available for purchase in ebook format. 390 Drugs that can affect blood glucose Level Table of Contents: Drugs that May Cause Hyper- or Hypoglycemia Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia Abacavir | Abacavir + lamivudine,zidovudine | Abacavir + dolutegravir + lamivudine | Abiraterone | Acetazolamide | Acitretin | Aletinib | Albuterol | Albuterol + ipratropium | Aliskiren + amlodipine + hydrochlorothiazide | Aliskiren + amlodipine | Ammonium chloride Amphotericin B | Amphotericin B lipid formulations IV | Amprenavir | Anidulafungin | Aripiprazole | Arsenic trioxide | Asparaginase | Atazanavir | Atazanavir + cobistat | Atenolol + chlorthalidone | Atorvastatin | Atovaquone | Baclofen | Belatacept | Benazepril + hydrochlorothiazide | Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia Continued Betamethasone topical | Betamethasone +clotrimazole | Betaxolol Betoptic® eyedrops, | Bexarotene | (TargContinue reading > >
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How Diabetic Neuropathy Can Lead To Heartburn And Other Issues
So how might diabetes affect the digestive system? Advanced diabetes, whether its from type 1 or type 2 diabetes, can affect any organ in the body including those organs in the digestive tract, says James C. Reynolds, MD, a gastroenterology specialist and clinical medicine professor at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
Dr. Reynolds notes digestive problems may be caused by the very factors that led to diabetes in the first place, such as obesity, but its also possible that digestive problems are the result of diabetes-related complications, such as hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar.
One of the most serious diabetes complications that can result from consistent high blood sugar is diabetic neuropathy, or nerve damage. Neuropathy may lead to weakness, pain, and numbness, affecting feeling in your feet, legs, and hands, but the condition can also affect digestive functions like swallowing and constipation, Reynolds explains.
If you have diabetes, this potential complication is just another reason its crucial to pay attention to your A1C, the average level of glucose over the past two to three months, Reynolds says.