What Are The Different Types Of Lupus
There are several different types of lupus. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common. Other types of lupus include:
- Cutaneous lupus erythematosus: This type of lupus affects the skin cutaneous is a term meaning skin. Individuals with cutaneous lupus erythematosus may experience skin issues like a sensitivity to the sun and rashes. Hair loss can also be a symptom of this condition.
- Drug-induced lupus: These cases of lupus are caused by certain medications. People with drug-induced lupus may have many of the same symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus, but its usually temporary. Often, this type of lupus goes away once you stop the medication thats causing it.
- Neonatal lupus: A rare type of lupus, neonatal lupus is a condition found in infants at birth. Children born with neonatal lupus have antibodies that were passed to them from their mother who either had lupus at the time of the pregnancy or may have the condition later in life. Not every baby born to a mother with lupus will have the disease.
Sores Or Red Patches On The Skin
Lupus can cause two main types of lesion or sore:
- Discoid lupus lesions, which are thick and disk-shaped. They often appear on the scalp or face and can cause permanent scarring. They may be red and scaly, but they do not cause pain or itching.
- Subacute cutaneous lesions, which may look like patches of scaly skin or ring-shaped sores. They usually appear on areas of skin that get exposure to the sun, such as the arms, shoulders, and neck. They do not cause scarring.
Both types of lesion are photosensitive, which means that they are highly sensitive to sunlight.
People who have these types of lesion should avoid being out in the sunlight as much as possible, use sunscreen, wear sun-protective clothing, and limit or avoid exposure to fluorescent light.
How Is Lupus Diagnosed
The diagnosis process can be long and difficult for lupus. The symptoms that you might experience with lupus can overlap with those of other conditions for example, diabetes and arthritis. Symptoms of lupus may also take time to develop, adding to the challenge of diagnosing the disease.
Your healthcare provider will typically start with a family history to see if lupus runs in your family. Then, your provider will want to discuss any symptoms youve experienced. After talking to you about your symptoms, your provider will typically do some lab tests. These tests are looking for things like low blood cell counts, anemia and other abnormalities.
The provider may also do an antinuclear antibody test. This test looks for antibodies proteins in your body that defend against disease that could be a sign you have an autoimmune disease. People who have systemic lupus erythematosus usually test positive for ANAs.
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From Nausea And Flatulence To Diarrhea And Abdominal Pains Gastrointestinal Issues Are Often Under
The gastrointestinal tract is in charge of processing food to extract nutrients and dispose of waste. The digestive process works like this:
The gastrointestinal tract begins with your mouth where food is masticated . After food is swallowed, it travels down the esophagus. This is the only part of the digestive process that is directly under control. The rest of the process is involuntary.
When the esophageal sphincter relaxes, food enters the stomach. The stomach secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to help digest the food. From there, the partially digested food, known as chyme, passes through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. The small intestine then takes over, mixing food with digestive juices from the liver, pancreas, and intestine while also absorbing nutrients into the bloodstream.
Digestive muscles continue to work and they push waste into the large intestine. Waste can include undigested parts of food, fluids, and older cells that line the GI tract. The large intestine absorbs the remaining nutrients and water then changes the remaining material into stool. The rectum, located at the lower end of the large intestine, stores the stool until it is excreted during a bowel movement.
What Do Lupus Skin Problems Feel Like
Sometimes these skin problems feel itchy or painful, and sometimes they dont. The symptoms can come and go, and they can feel different from person to person. If you have pain or other symptoms from lupus, talk with your doctor about treatment options.
Lupus skin problems are not contagious you cant catch them or give them to someone else.
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Case Report: A Lupus Patient With Abdominal Pain
Figure 1: Computed Tomography of the Abdomen
Our patient was a 33-year-old, 52 Asian woman with a past medical history of systemic lupus erythematosus . The diagnosis was based on serologies positive for anti-nuclear antibodies , as well as antibodies to Sm, RNP and SSA. Her illness included neuropsychiatric and cutaneous involvement. She also had a diagnosis of Hashimotos thyroiditis.
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She presented with two weeks of abdominal bloating and one week of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and non-bloody diarrhea. Her symptoms began two weeks before, with abdominal fullness and bloating, which progressed to acute-onset, diffuse, intermittent, cramping abdominal pain associated with non-bloody emesis and multiple episodes of non-bloody, watery diarrhea. She had not been able to tolerate oral intake for the past few days. She denied fevers, chills, sick contacts or recent travel, but said a sweet potato casserole she ate may have been bad.
One week prior to admission, she was seen in student health and was given intravenous fluids and antiemetics. A few days prior to admission, she presented to the emergency department for persistent symptoms. An abdominal ultrasound done in the emergency department was unremarkable, a pregnancy test was negative, and enteric stool pathogen testing was negative. She improved after receiving intravenous fluids and antiemetics and was again sent home.
Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
Most people with ACLE have active SLE with skin inflammation, and ACLE lesions are found in about half of all people with SLE at some point during the course of the disease. The lesions characteristic of ACLE usually occur in areas exposed to the sun and can be triggered by sun exposure. Therefore, it is very important that people with ACLE wear sunscreen and protective clothing when going outdoors.
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Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea And Constipation
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation can be side effects of some of the drugs commonly used to treat lupus symptoms, especially NSAIDs and steroids. People with lupus are also more susceptible to infections if they are taking immunosuppressants, and these symptoms are common side effects of GI infections.1,2
If lupus attacks the intestinal tissue itself, irritable bowel syndrome may result because the intestines stop moving food properly through the system. People with lupus rarely also develop celiac disease, an autoimmune reaction to gluten.1,2
Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are different forms of inflammatory bowel disease. People with lupus sometimes develop ulcerative colitis but it is rare for someone with lupus to develop Crohns disease . Bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain are common with both, but these are 2 distinct conditions.1,2
Clinical Features And Laboratory Data
The demographic data of the patients were recorded. SLEDAI was calculated at the time of diagnosis of SLE and at the time of acute abdominal pain. The laboratory data, including the white blood cell count, haemoglobin, platelets, complement, erythrocyte sedimentation rate , C reactive protein , anti-dsDNA, aPL, anti-Sm antibody, anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody, anti-Ro antibody, and anti-La antibody, were measured at the time of diagnosis of SLE. The WBC count, haemoglobin, platelets, complement, ESR, CRP, and anti-dsDNA were measured at the time of acute abdominal pain and were compared with levels calculated at the time of diagnosis of SLE. CRP was measured quantitatively by immunonephelometry . Complements 3 and 4 were calculated by nephelometry . Anti-dsDNA antibody was detected by radioimmunometric assay . A lupus anticoagulant test was performed using dilute Russell viper venom time reagent . Anticardiolipin antibody was detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay . Anti-Î²2-glycoprotein I antibody was detected by ELISA .
Four patients with lupus enteritis relapsed. For the 21 episodes of lupus enteritis, CT scanning recorded the sites affected and the characteristic findings.
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Why Does Lupus Cause Weight Gain Or Weight Loss
Many people with lupus may experience weight loss. This can be caused by the medications that are used to treat lupus or from the discomfort of the disease itself. On the flip side, some people may gain weight if they find that they are inactive due to joint pain. Its important to maintain a healthy diet when you have lupus. Talk to your healthcare provider and possibly a nutritionist to determine the best diet for you.
Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
About 10% of lupus patients have SCLE. The lesions characteristic of this condition usually do not scar, do not appear thick and scaly, and usually do not itch. About half of all people with SCLE will also fulfill the criteria for systemic lupus. Treatment can be tricky because SCLE lesions often resist treatments with steroid creams and antimalarials. People with SCLE should be sure to put on sunscreen and protective clothing when going outdoors in order to avoid sun exposure, which may trigger the development of more lesions.
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Treating Lupus Stomach Pain
Lupus can attack any body system, and the gastrointestinal tract is no different. Your tummy troubles may very well be a side-effect of lupus.
The Lupus Foundation of America explains how lupus can affect the GI system as well as surrounding organs such as the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. Many of the issues you are experiencing may be the result of medications or additional disorders.
However, when tummy troubles arise, the underlying reason may be the furthest thing from your mind at least that is true in my case. Sure, I want to know whats causing the problem, but Im more interested in finding some relief!
I have found that my tummy troubles can last for days. Its uncomfortable and annoying.
What causes it? Is there anything I can do to avoid it? How can I find relief? These are probably questions that have gone through your mind as well.
Id like to shed some light from my experience, offer some potential answers, and hopefully help settle the stomach woes so many are faced with each day.
Joint Swelling And Pain
One of the most common symptoms of lupus is joint problems. Lupus may cause swollen, tender, stiff, or warm joints.
These issues usually affect the extremities, including the fingers, toes, wrists, knees, and ankles. Although lupus is not a type of arthritis, the inflammation that it causes can result in symptoms of arthritis.
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Caring For Your Pet After A Lupus Diagnosis
Caring for a pet is a big deal. Caring for a pet with lupus, even bigger. You know your dog the best and can tell if hes in pain. Although in many cases, it may be caused by something temporary, if it persists, dont hesitate scheduling an appointment with the veterinarian.
As your dog ages, there likely will be symptoms or ailments that may mysteriously pop up, all which should be addressed at your dogs checkups. Your veterinarian can run some preliminary tests, if necessary, and further evaluate the situation. This helps you catch illness or other health conditions before they become too severe.
Over time, your pet may move slower and not be as active as before. Caring for a dog with lupus will take an adjustment period. Comfort for your pet is key. Give your dog what he needs to thrive and be as healthy as possible. This involves regulating his diet, exercise habits, and activity levels. Follow the recommendations given to you by your veterinarian. In addition, set up a special, comfortable space where he can relax without too much distraction.
If your dog has been diagnosed with lupus, attentive care and support are more important now than ever. And being informed and aware of the potential warning signs of the disease is a good place to start.
Can I Get Pregnant If I Have Lupus
Women with lupus can get pregnant. However, there is a risk of poor pregnancy outcomes in people with lupus. If youre considering a future pregnancy, start talking to your healthcare provider several months in advance during a preconception appointment. Your provider may need to adjust your lupus medications to ensure that theyre safe for pregnancy.
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How To Treat Lupus In Dogs
Both types of lupus can be fatal for dogs without treatment. Neither is a curable disease, but rather, lupus requires a shift in lifestyle to actively minimize symptoms, discomfort, and pain in dogs. Treatment options for SLE may include administering corticosteroids, such as prednisone, or antibiotics if secondary infections are found.
Also, its best to limit a dogs exposure to sunlight, as this only aggravates symptoms. Protect your dog by keeping him out of the sun as much as possible, especially during the highest peaks of the day. Chemotherapy might also be recommended to help treat pain and suppress abnormal responses of the immune system.
DLE, the less severe of the two types of lupus, is easier to treat, but still there is no cure. In order to reduce inflammation and control skin sores, topical corticosteroids are the typical recommendation. Other treatment like prednisone and other antibiotics are also part of the treatment plan to stave off other infections and inflammation in dogs.
Not sure of which route to take? Ask your veterinarian for recommendations for holistic treatment either as an alternative to medication or a supplement to help prevent symptoms from recurring.
Sle And Sjgren’s Syndrome
Morgan first described Sjögren’s syndrome associated with SLE in 1954. Of 266 patients with SLE under long-term follow-up in our own unit, 13% have been diagnosed as having Sjögren’s syndrome on the basis of meeting the European classification criteria . The prevalence of secondary Sjögren’s syndrome occurring in SLE is likely to have been overestimated by some studies due to the lack of specific diagnostic criteria for classifying patients. For example, in a prospective study of manifestations of Sjögren’s syndrome in 50 patients with SLE, all were questioned for sicca symptoms, and tests performed included Schirmer’s and Rose Bengal tests, parotid sialography, salivary scintiscans, isotopic excretion in saliva and lip biopsies . At least two abnormal test results were found in 49 out of 50 patients and were considered indicative of subclinical evidence of Sjögren’s syndrome, despite the fact that 46.9% had no sicca symptoms. Studies that have used well-defined histological and objective clinical criteria have shown that Sjögren’s syndrome occurs in 20% of patients with SLE .
Sjögren’s syndrome may precede SLE by many years, although it most frequently appears late in the course of the disease and in elderly patients with SLE . Patients with SLE and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome also tend to exhibit fewer systemic manifestations, particularly renal involvement, compared to those with SLE alone .
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Diagnosing Lupus In Dogs
The symptoms of both types of lupus in dogs can make it difficult for it to be diagnosed because they are representative of other types of autoimmune diseases, too. For DLE, a diagnosis can be made after completing a checkup and performing a skin biopsy to get a clearer picture of what the symptoms mean.
SLE symptoms are similar to those found in cases of kidney disease and cancer in dogs. Your veterinarian can run blood tests to cancel out other types of diseases and distinguish lupus as the diagnosis. One way is to perform an antinuclear antibodies test. If your dog tests positive for this, it can be the differentiating factor between lupus and other diseases.
Just because your dog exhibits signs of an autoimmune disease, dont assume the worst. It can be a range of health conditions, many of which are treatable.
Skin Rashes And Lesions
While many people often associate lupus with the facial butterfly rash, the reality is lupus can cause a variety of skin rashes and lesions, most of which appear on sun-exposed areas like the face, ears, neck, arms and legs. According to the Lupus Foundation of America, 66 percent of people with lupus develop some sort of skin disease.
There are three main types of cutaneous lupus:
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Trouble Swallowing And Gerd
Scientists estimate that between 20 percent and 70 percent of people with lupus experience esophageal motility disorder. The esophagus is the muscle that connects the throat to the stomach and its action moves food through the first parts of the digestive tract. Motility refers to the action of the muscle that moves food through the tube of the esophagus. When lupus inflames the esophagus people may have trouble swallowing or stomach acids may creep up from the stomach causing gastroesophageal reflux disease . GERD is sometimes called acid reflux and causes heartburn or gas.1,3