Thursday, December 1, 2022

How Do You Get Cancer In Your Stomach

Certain Factors Affect Prognosis And Treatment Options

What Happens If Your Stomach Gets Removed?

The prognosis and treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer .
  • The patients general health.

When gastric cancer is found very early, there is a better chance of recovery. Gastric cancer is often in an advanced stage when it is diagnosed. At later stages, gastric cancer can be treated but rarely can be cured. Taking part in one of the clinical trials being done to improve treatment should be considered. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Symptoms Of Stomach Cancer

The most common symptoms of stomach cancer include:

  • difficulty swallowing
  • indigestion that doesn’t go away
  • feeling full after eating small amounts
  • feeling or being sick
  • tiredness due to low red blood cells

Symptoms of early stomach cancer can be similar to the symptoms of other conditions, such as stomach ulcers.

Risk Factors For Gastric Cancer

  • H pylori infection and atrophic gastritis

  • Pernicious anaemia

Haematemesis or melaena
Weight loss

Constant abdominal pain, and particularly back pain, are sinister symptoms implying local invasion by tumour. Chronic or acute bleeding from the tumour may occur, with consequent symptoms. There is often little to be found on examination, but there may be a palpable epigastric mass. The classic Troisier’s sign is rare.

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How To Lower Your Risk

As a society, we eat a lot of processed and unhealthy foods that cause these benign symptoms that we have. We really need to shift back to a cleaner, mostly plant-based diet, says Dr. El-Hayek. Theres no doubt that the data supports a diet thats rich in fresh vegetables, minimal fruit and minimal meat, especially processed meat. Avoiding these toxic foods will not only decrease a persons risk for cancer development, but also the digestive symptoms from eating them.

How Is Gastric Cancer Diagnosed

Stomach cancer: how to get rid of it?

Upper endoscopy is used for the initial diagnosis and staging of patients with gastric cancer. Many times, ultrasound during endoscopy is also used to help identify how deep into the wall of the stomach the cancer has grown. In many cases, ultrasound can also identify if the cancer has spread to lymph nodes. Depth of stomach wall invasion and presence of lymph node spread are two very important pieces of information in determining treatment options.

Other procedures are needed to determine the stage of the disease. CT scans of the abdomen and chest may be done. This is to rule out spread to distant organs, like the liver and lungs, and also to see if the cancer has spread to lymph nodes close to the stomach that could not be seen by ultrasound. Other tests to rule out abdominal spread of disease outside of the stomach itself are PET scans and laparoscopy.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves entering the abdominal cavity with a fiber-optic camera using small cuts in the skin. This allows your provider to see all the organs and tissues in the area of the stomach, the abdominal cavity, and the lining of the abdomen . A sample of abdominal fluid can be sent to cytology/pathology to check for cancer cells in the fluid.

Blood screening tests may also be done to check that overall blood counts are within normal limits, to check for anemia and that a patient’s liver and kidneys are working properly.

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Stomach Cancer Causes: Conditions And Diseases

Having certain stomach-specific conditions and diseases increases your risk of developing stomach cancer. If you have a history of these conditions and diseases it does not mean that you will develop stomach cancer, it only means that you are at a higher risk of developing stomach cancer. These conditions and disease include:

  • Stomach polyps: The risk for stomach cancer is higher in a person who has had small growths, called stomach polyps. This risk is greater if you’ve had a type called adenomatous polyps.
  • Previous stomach surgery: If you’ve already had surgery to remove part of your stomach for stomach ulcers, you are at increased risk of cancer occurring in the stomach that remains.
  • Helicobacter pylori infection: This is a bacterial infection that can cause stomach ulcers and injure the lining of the stomach. This bacteria increases your risk of stomach cancer.
  • Megoloblastic anemia: This is a severe problem in producing red blood cells due to the stomach’s inability to absorb vitamin B12. People with megoloblastic anemia are at increased risk of stomach cancer.
  • Menetrier’s disease: This rare disease may be linked to stomach cancer. In Menetrier’s disease , you have large folds in your stomach. The stomach lining is abnormal, and the stomach produces too little acid.

Symptoms Of Gastric Cancer Include Indigestion And Stomach Discomfort Or Pain

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by gastric cancer or by other conditions.

In the early stages of gastric cancer, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Indigestion and stomach discomfort.
  • Weight loss for no known reason.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Jaundice .
  • Ascites .
  • Trouble swallowing.

Check with your doctor if you have any of these problems.

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What Are The Different Stages Of Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer is staged based on the severity of cancerous cell growth and spread. Adenocarcinoma is initially evaluated by the tumor, node metastasis system.

  • T: How deeply has the tumor spread into the stomach wall?
  • N: Has the stomach cancer spread to the lymph nodes?
  • M: Has the stomach cancer spread to other parts of the body?

After the TNM staging information has been taken into account, the cancer is staged at 0 or 1 to 4. Tumor classifications for staging are as follows:

  • Stage 0 is early cancer on the surface of the stomach lining.
  • Stage 1A or 1B
  • Stage 2A or 2B, commonly with deeper stomach wall involved
  • Stage 3A or 3B or 3C, commonly with lymph node involvement
  • Stage 4 means cancer has metastasized elsewhere in the body outside of the stomach.

Does Stomach Cancer Affect Men And Women Differently

Living Without your Stomach

It is important to look for signs of stomach cancer in adults over the age of 55. However, it most commonly affects those in their 60s or 70s. While it is crucial to be aware of the signs of stomach cancer in females, men are more likely to develop stomach cancer. In 2020, 16,980 men and 10,620 women are projected to be diagnosed with the disease. Men have a lifetime risk of 1 in 95 of developing stomach cancer, while women have a 1 in 154 risk. The signs of stomach cancer in men are typically no different than in women.

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Causes Of Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer is caused by changes in the cells of the stomach, although it’s unclear exactly why these changes occur.

Cancer begins with a change in the structure of the DNA in cells, which can affect how they grow. This means cells grow and reproduce uncontrollably, producing a lump of tissue called a tumour.

Left untreated, cancer can spread to other parts of the body, usually through the lymphatic system .

Once the cancer reaches your lymphatic system, it’s capable of spreading to other parts of your body, including your blood, bones and organs.

It’s not known what triggers the changes in DNA that lead to stomach cancer and why only a small number of people develop the condition.

Signs And Symptoms Of Stomach Cancer

Early-stage stomach cancer rarely causes symptoms. In countries where screening for stomach cancer is not routine, such as the United States, most stomach cancers arent found until theyve grown fairly large or have spread outside the stomach.

When stomach cancer does cause signs and symptoms, they can include:

  • Poor appetite
  • Vague discomfort in the abdomen, usually above the navel
  • Feeling full after eating only a small meal
  • Heartburn or indigestion
  • Vomiting, with or without blood
  • Swelling or fluid build-up in the abdomen
  • Blood in the stool
  • Feeling tired or weak, as a result of having too few red blood cells
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes , if the cancer spreads to the liver

Most of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by things other than stomach cancer, such as a viral infection or an ulcer. Some of these symptoms may also be caused by other types of cancer. But people who have any of these problems, especially if they dont go away or get worse, should see a doctor so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Ku GY, Ilson DH. Chapter 72: Cancer of the Stomach. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier 2020.

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Testing For Other Conditions And Cancers

Individuals who have hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome and Lynch syndrome have a drastically increased risk of stomach cancer. Recognizing these and taking precautions after receiving a doctors advice can reduce the risk.

People with close family members who have had stomach cancer and those who had invasive lobular breast cancer before the age of 50 years might benefit from genetic testing.

If a test shows changes in the CDH1 gene, a doctor may recommend removing the stomach before cancer develops.

Current research is looking into the possible cancer links of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach lining.

Early studies suggest that treating H. pylori infection with antibiotics can reduce the risk of stomach cancer, although further research is necessary.

Surgery To Remove Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer: how to get rid of it?

If stomach cancer is found early, has not spread or has not spread far you may be able to have surgery to remove it.

Surgery will remove part or all of the stomach. They may also need to remove parts of other organs around the stomach.

Recovery from surgery to treat stomach cancer can take a long time. The specialist team looking after you will discuss all the benefits and side effects.

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When Do Cells Become Cancerous

The answer is that most of the time, we dont know how long it takes for precancerous cells to become cancerous. In addition, the answer certainly varies depending on the type of cell studied.

In one study looking at 101 people with dysplasia of the vocal cords, 15 went on to develop invasive cancer .

In 73% of these patients, their precancerous lesions became invasive cancer of the vocal cords within one year, with the remainder developing cancer years later.

What Are The Different Types Of Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as , is the name for a category of cancer. There are many different types of stomach cancer:

  • Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of gastric cancer, comprising more than 90% of all stomach cancers. Carcinoma that occurs in the innermost lining of the stomach.
  • : Cancer of the immune system that accounts for 4% of all stomach cancer, which is not from the mucosa of the stomach lining. It is broken up into primary and secondary lymphoma of the stomach.
  • Primary lymphoma involves the stomach and can eventually affect the lymph nodes, bone marrow and other parts of the body.
  • Secondary lymphoma initially involves other parts of the body, like circulating blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other organs. Secondarily, cancer spreads to the stomach.
  • Gastrointestinal Stroma Tumor: A kind of soft tissue sarcoma that can grow in the stomachs connective tissue.
  • Neuroendocrine cancer: Also known as carcinoid tumors, neuroendocrine cancer originates from cells in the intestines endocrine and nervous systems.
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    Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    • I have a stomach ulcer. Am I more likely to get stomach cancer?
    • Will eating a healthy diet help me to prevent getting stomach cancer?
    • My father had stomach cancer. Should I be tested for it?
    • What is the best treatment for my stomach cancer?
    • Will I be able to eat normally after my treatment?
    • After my treatment, will I have to come back often to make sure my stomach cancer doesnt come back?
    • During and after treatment, should I quit drinking alcohol?

    How Can Stomach Cancer Be Prevented

    Living Without your Stomach © Lee Health

    Stomach cancer can be prevented with the following practices:

    • The best way to prevent stomach cancer is by eating a healthy diet that is high in fruits and vegetables and low in salts and red meats.
    • Maintain a healthy weight and practice good exercise habits.
    • Avoid smoking, because it increases the risk for stomach cancer and many other cancers.

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    Managing Ovarian Cancer Pain

    The main treatments for ovarian cancer are meant to prolong your life and improve symptoms like pain. You may have surgery, chemotherapy, and possibly radiation to remove or shrink the tumor as much as possible.

    Your doctor may also perform surgery to clear a blockage in your bowel, urinary system, or kidney thats causing pain.

    Your doctor also can give you medicine to directly address cancer pain. Theyll recommend a pain reliever based on the severity of your pain.

    For mild pain, you may get prescribed an over-the-counter analgesic such as acetaminophen . Or, you can try a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug like aspirin or ibuprofen .

    NSAIDs relieve pain and bring down inflammation in the body. Yet they can damage your stomach or liver, so use only the amount you need for the shortest amount of time.

    For more intense pain, you may need an opioid medication. The most common opioid used to treat cancer pain is morphine. Other options include:

    Opioids can be addictive. Use them very carefully and only under your doctors guidance.

    Depending on where your pain is located, another option is a nerve block. In this treatment, pain medicine is injected into a nerve or into the space around your spine for more direct and long-lasting relief.

    Other types of medications sometimes used to relieve ovarian cancer pain include:

    Treatment When The Cancer Is Curable:

    Chemotherapy may be given before surgery if the cancer is felt to be curable to reduce the size of the cancer . This can sometimes mean that even larger cancers might be able to be treated with surgery.

    Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection : This treatment might be considered if the cancer is diagnosed early and it has not progressed beyond the most superficial layers of the stomach wall. This treatment is conducted during an endoscopy without having to have an operation that cuts into the abdominal cavity. Frequent follow up is advised after treatment then annually to check there is no secondary cancer.

    Surgery: The type of surgery will depend on where the cancer is located in the stomach and it might result in part or all of the stomach being removed. As this is major surgery, your fitness will be considered in the decision about whether this is the best treatment option for you. Some centres offer therapy to help you to get fitter before the surgery . In some specialist centres keyhole or robotic surgery might be used to remove stomach cancers, but this treatment should be considered where there is dedicated expertise. As it is a new treatment, more data needs to be gathered to see the long-term success of this treatment.

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    What Causes Stomach Cancer

    Your stomach is just one part of the upper section of your digestive tract. Your stomach is responsible for digesting food and then moving the nutrients along to the rest of your digestive organs, namely the small and large intestines.

    Stomach cancer occurs when normally healthy cells within the upper digestive system become cancerous and grow out of control, forming a tumor. This process happens slowly. Stomach cancer tends to develop over many years.

    Stomach cancer is directly linked to tumors in the stomach. However, there are some factors that might increase your risk of developing these cancerous cells. These risk factors include certain diseases and conditions, such as:

    Stomach cancer is also more common among:

    • older adults, usually people 50 years and older
    • men
    • people with a family history of the disease
    • people who are of Asian , South American, or Belarusian descent

    While your personal medical history can impact your risk of developing stomach cancer, certain lifestyle factors can also play a role. You may be more likely to get stomach cancer if you:

    • eat a lot of salty or processed foods
    • eat too much meat
    • have a history of alcohol abuse
    • dont exercise
    • dont store or cook food properly

    Some of the most common symptoms of advanced stomach cancer are:

    Inherited Versus Acquired Gene Mutations

    Stomach Cancer

    Inherited mutations in some genes can increase a persons stomach cancer risk. But these are thought to cause only a small percentage of stomach cancers.

    Most of the gene changes that lead to stomach cancer occur after birth. Some of these acquired mutations might be caused by risk factors such as H pylori infection or tobacco use. But other gene changes may just be random events that sometimes happen inside cells, without having an outside cause.

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    Living With Advanced Cancer

    Advanced cancer usually means cancer that is unlikely to be cured. Some people can live for many months or years with advanced cancer. During this time palliative care services can help.

    Most people continue to have treatment for advanced cancer as part of palliative care, as it helps manage the cancer and improve their day-to-day lives. Many people think that palliative care is for people who are dying but palliative care is for any stage of advanced cancer. There are doctors, nurses and other people who specialise in palliative care.

    Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy or another type of treatment. It can help in these ways:

    • Slow down how fast the cancer is growing.
    • Shrink the cancer.
    • Help you to live more comfortably by managing symptoms, like pain.

    Treatment depends on:

    • How far it has spread.
    • Your general health.

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