Diagnosis Of Stomach Cancer
If your doctor thinks you may have stomach cancer, you will be referred for further tests. The main test is an endoscopy . The doctor will use a thin, flexible tube with a camera , which passes into the mouth, down the throat and oesophagus into the stomach in order to look at the digestive tract.
If any suspicious-looking areas are detected, a small amount of tissue from the stomach lining may be removed and examined under a microscope. Less commonly used is an endoscopic ultrasound where the endoscope has an ultrasound probe at the end.
Smoking Poses Many Other Health Risks
While smoking is most famously associated with lung cancer, it can also cause cancers of the mouth, throat, sinuses, esophagus, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, bladder, uterus and cervix, as well as some types of leukemia. Smoking also directly causes chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , such as bronchitis and emphysema, and worsens asthma. Additionally, it is heavily linked to high blood pressure, ulcers, osteoporosis, diabetes and reproductive disorders such as infertility, miscarriage and premature menopause.
If you are ready to quit smoking, good for you! Moffitt Cancer Center can help you take this important first step in improving your health and wellness. You can request an appointment with a smoking cessation specialist in our tobacco treatment program by calling or completing our new patient registration form online.
Greater Amount Of Inhaled Smoke
One reason hookah smoke may be more toxic than cigarette smoke is that more smoke is inhaled. In a typical “session” of water-pipe smoking , 200 puffs are inhaled versus the 20 puffs ordinarily inhaled in smoking a single cigarette. This translates into a typical hookah session resulting in the inhalation of 90,000 milliliters of smoke as compared to the 500 to 600 ml of smoke inhaled with a cigarette.
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How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed
Several different tests can be used to help diagnose stomach cancer.
- Radiologic tests like a CT scan, barium swallow and MRI can help identify a problem in the stomach if the tumor is large enough.
- An upper endoscopy is used to take a biopsy of the lesion to make the diagnosis or to detect early cancer before a mass is large enough to be seen on radiologic tests. An upper endoscopy is performed by inserting a thin tube with a tiny camera through the mouth and into the stomach, where biopsies are obtained from the tumor.
- To find out how much of the stomach wall a tumor involves and to help assess the stage of the cancer, a doctor will order an endoscopic ultrasound, which uses a special type of endoscope that has an ultrasound probe. The endoscope is placed in the stomach through the mouth. The ultrasound probe is able to look through the surface of the stomach lining to the stomach wall beyond and see how much of the stomach is involved by the tumor.
Whats My Cancer Risk From Smoking
Our bodies are designed to deal with a bit of damage, but they often cant cope with the amount of harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke.
Both the amount you smoke, and the length of time youve been smoking for affect your cancer risk.
The more cigarettes you smoke a day, the higher your risk of cancer, so reducing the number of daily cigarettes you smoke can be a good first step.
But the number of years you spend smoking affects your cancer risk most strongly. So its important to make a plan to stop smoking completely.
Remember, the sooner you stop, the lower your risk of cancer. Everyone who smokes can benefit from stopping, and its never too late to stop- even if youve smoked for years . Speak to your GP or pharmacist, or visit NHS Smokefree for free support to help you stop for good.
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Reducing Your Risk And Other Possible Causes
You might have heard of other possible causes of cancer. Stories about potential causes are often in the media and it isnt always clear which ideas are supported by evidence.
We havent included them here, either because there is no evidence about them or it is less clear.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humansVolumes 1 to 122. Accessed October 2018.
The fraction of cancer attributable to known risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the UK overall in 2015.K Brown and others
What Is The Stomach Cancer Outlook
Stomach cancer prognosis is still quite poor, mainly because the disease isn’t detected until quite late in its course.Statistics from Cancer Research UK indicate a five year survival rate of only 17.6 per cent.
Earlier detection will save lives, and new ways of assessing, particularly in those at high risk, will hopefully improve outcome.
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How Is Stomach Cancer Staged
Staging is a tool used to determine the extent of the disease as well as the most suitable treatment options. It also gives an indication of prognosis or survival.
To stage stomach cancer, the main investigation used is a CT or computerised tomography scan, which provides fine detail of your internal organs and allows your doctor to check the rest of your body for evidence of cancer spread.
Sometimes, a different type of gastroscopy called an endoscopic ultrasound is performed after the tumour has been diagnosed. An endoscopic ultrasound is carried out in the same way as a gastroscopy, but with the addition of a special ultrasound probe on the tip of the gastroscope. This allows your doctor to determine the depth of invasion of the tumour as well as evidence of spread outside of the stomach.
Some patients need to have other investigations such as a PET scan which measures the activity of any cancer cells in the body, or laparascopy, which is a type of exploratory surgery to look at the outside of the stomach and the nearby organs.
Stomach Cancer And Medications
Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , such as ibuprofen, can lower the risk for getting some kinds of stomach cancer. However, they can cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Many doctors view aspirin or NSAIDs as an added benefit in preventing cancer if you are taking them for other conditions, such as arthritis. But they do not recommend taking them only to reduce your cancer risk.
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Types Of Gastric Cancer
Types of stomach cancer include:
- Adenocarcinoma Up to 95 percent of stomach cancers are adenocarcinomas. These develop from the formation of cells in your stomachs innermost lining.
- Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor These tumors are rare and begin in early forms of cells in your stomach wall. Referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal, these tumors may be non-cancerous or cancerous. While GISTs may present anywhere in your digestive tract, theyre typically located in your stomach.
- Carcinoid Tumor A carcinoid tumor starts in your stomachs hormone-making cells. They typically dont spread to your other organs, and they make up around 3 percent of gastric cancers.
- Lymphoma These immune system tissue cancers are found on your stomach wall. Lymphomas comprise around 4 percent of gastric cancers. The treatment you receive and your prognosis depend on what type of lymphoma you have.
Smoking And The Digestive System
Smoking can harm your digestive system in a number of ways. Smokers tend to get heartburn and peptic ulcers more often than nonsmokers. Smoking makes those conditions harder to treat. Smoking increases the risk for Crohn’s disease and gallstones. It also increases the risk of more damage in liver disease. Smoking can also make pancreatitis worse. In addition, smoking is associated with cancer of the digestive organs, including the head and neck, stomach, pancreas, and colon.
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Smoking And Crohns Disease
Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. This disease is an autoimmune disorder of the digestive tract. For reasons that are not clear, it’s more common among smokers than nonsmokers. Although there are many ways to help keep Crohns flares under control, it has no cure. Smoking can also make it harder to control Crohn’s disease and its symptoms.
What Is Stomach Cancer
In stomach cancer , cancer cells usually begin on the inner lining of stomach walls and then penetrate deeper into the stomach walls as the cancer develops. The tumor may grow to involve nearby organs like the liver and pancreas.
Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, but is seen less often in the United States. The number of stomach cancer cases has been steadily declining over the last few decades, possibly because of widespread use of refrigeration that increased access to fresh food without preservatives and bacterial contamination.
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Colorectal Cancer And Ostomies
An ostomy is a surgical opening made to the body that allows waste to be eliminated from the body.13 Ostomies are used in treatment or management of cancer or other diseases.14 Ostomies are needed when the bodys normal opening is closed or altered as part of cancer treatment. An ostomy pouch is located around the opening to collect waste for removal. Ostomies are usually done during the first stages of surgical treatment to remove cancer.13 For patients with colorectal cancer, a colostomy can be a lifesaving surgery.13,14 An ostomy can be temporary or permanent.13,14 Temporary ostomies are used while the affected area of the body heals. Permanent ostomies are used when cancer has resulted in the removal of the entire colon or the end of it.13,14
The United Ostomy Associations of America external icon website focuses on the positive quality of life people can attain following ostomy surgery and provides information on a variety of topics, including:
- Descriptions of ostomy terms
- Tips for living with an ostomy
- Support groups
- Ways to connect with others who have had ostomy surgery
- Medical information
- Information for specific individuals
- Information about food and nutrition
What Is The Role Of Smoking In The Etiology Of Gastric Cancer
Smoking is associated with an increased incidence of stomach cancer in a dose-dependent manner, both for number of cigarettes and for duration of smoking. Smoking increases the risk of cardiac and noncardiac forms of stomach cancer. Cessation of smoking reduces the risk. A meta-analysis of 40 studies estimated that the risk was increased by approximately 1.5- to 1.6-fold and was higher in men.
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Who Is More Likely To Get Stomach Cancer
Anyone can get stomach cancer. It’s not always clear what causes it.
You might be more likely to get it if you:
- are over the age of 50
- are a man
- have a long-term infection with Helicobacter pylori read more about the link between H. pylori and stomach cancer on the Cancer Research UK website
- have certain stomach conditions, such as long-term, severe acid reflux, gastritis or a condition called pernicious anaemia, which affects your immune system
- have a brother, sister or parent who had stomach cancer
Many stomach cancers are also linked to lifestyle.
Changes In Genes In Stomach Cancer Cells
Recent research has provided clues on how some stomach cancers form. For instance, H pylori bacteria, particularly certain subtypes, can convert substances in some foods into chemicals that cause mutations in the DNA of the cells in the stomach lining. This may help explain why certain foods such as preserved meats increase a persons risk for stomach cancer. On the other hand, some of the foods that might lower stomach cancer risk, such as fruits and vegetables, contain antioxidants that can block substances that damage a cells DNA.
Stomach cancers, like other cancers, are caused by changes in the DNA inside cells. DNA is the chemical that carries our genes, which control how our cells function. We look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than how we look.
Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:
- Genes that normally help cells grow, divide, and stay alive can sometimes change to become oncogenes.
- Genes that help keep cell division under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.
Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that keep oncogenes turned on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes.
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Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer
This inherited syndrome greatly increases the risk of developing stomach cancer. This condition is rare, but the lifetime stomach cancer risk among affected people is up to 70%. Women with this syndrome also have an increased risk of invasive lobular breast cancer. This syndrome is most often caused by mutations in the CDH1 gene.
Surgery To Ease Your Symptoms
If your stomach cancer has spread beyond your stomach, it may not be possible to remove it using surgery.
However, if your stomach has been significantly affected by cancer it can cause a blockage, which prevents food from being properly digested. A blocked stomach can cause symptoms such as stomach pain, vomiting and feeling very full after eating.
If your stomach is blocked, there are a few options:
- stenting a stent is a plastic or wire mesh tube inserted through the oesophagus using an endoscope under local anaesthetic after being inserted, the stent will be expanded and open up the stomach
- partial or total gastrectomy to remove the blockage and improve your symptoms
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What Causes Stomach Cancer
Your stomach is just one part of the upper section of your digestive tract. Your stomach is responsible for digesting food and then moving the nutrients along to the rest of your digestive organs, namely the small and large intestines.
Stomach cancer occurs when normally healthy cells within the upper digestive system become cancerous and grow out of control, forming a tumor. This process happens slowly. Stomach cancer tends to develop over many years.
Stomach cancer is directly linked to tumors in the stomach. However, there are some factors that might increase your risk of developing these cancerous cells. These risk factors include certain diseases and conditions, such as:
- H. pylori bacterial infections
- tumors in other parts of the digestive system
- stomach polyps
Stomach cancer is also more common among:
- older adults, usually people 50 years and older
- people with a family history of the disease
- people who are of Asian , South American, or Belarusian descent
While your personal medical history can impact your risk of developing stomach cancer, certain lifestyle factors can also play a role. You may be more likely to get stomach cancer if you:
- eat a lot of salty or processed foods
- eat too much meat
- have a history of alcohol abuse
- dont exercise
- dont store or cook food properly
Some of the most common symptoms of advanced stomach cancer are:
Risks Of Gastric Cancer
Scientists are unsure of the exact way in which cancer cells begin growing in a patients stomach. However, they are aware of what can raise a persons risk for this disease. Researchers believe a significant cause of gastric cancer is an infection caused by H. pylori bacteria.
Other factors that seem to play a role in raising the risk include:
- Being obese or overweight
- Having had stomach surgery for ulcers
- Working in the metal, timber, coal or rubber industries
- Having exposure to asbestos
- Eating a diet high in pickled, smoked or salty foods
- Having certain genes
- Acquiring the Epstein-Barr virus infection
- Having a family history of stomach cancer
While gastric cancer is a complicated disease to diagnose and treat, its still essential to know all you can about it and the things you can do to deal with it, including how medical marijuana can help.
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Stomach Cancer Causes: Conditions And Diseases
Having certain stomach-specific conditions and diseases increases your risk of developing stomach cancer. If you have a history of these conditions and diseases it does not mean that you will develop stomach cancer, it only means that you are at a higher risk of developing stomach cancer. These conditions and disease include:
- Stomach polyps: The risk for stomach cancer is higher in a person who has had small growths, called stomach polyps. This risk is greater if you’ve had a type called adenomatous polyps.
- Previous stomach surgery: If you’ve already had surgery to remove part of your stomach for stomach ulcers, you are at increased risk of cancer occurring in the stomach that remains.
- Helicobacter pylori infection: This is a bacterial infection that can cause stomach ulcers and injure the lining of the stomach. This bacteria increases your risk of stomach cancer.
- Megoloblastic anemia: This is a severe problem in producing red blood cells due to the stomach’s inability to absorb vitamin B12. People with megoloblastic anemia are at increased risk of stomach cancer.
- Menetrier’s disease: This rare disease may be linked to stomach cancer. In Menetrier’s disease , you have large folds in your stomach. The stomach lining is abnormal, and the stomach produces too little acid.
Smoking And Liver Disease
The liver normally filters alcohol and other toxins out of your blood. But smoking limits your livers ability to remove these toxins from your body. If the liver isnt working as it should, it may not be able to process medications well. Studies have shown that when smoking is combined with drinking too much alcohol, it makes liver disease worse.
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