What Is Wind Made Up Of
Over 90% of wind in the gut is made up of five gases: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane. The remaining 10% contains small amounts of other gases.
Nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide: the nitrogen and oxygen comes from swallowed air whilst the carbon dioxide is produced by stomach acid mixing with bicarbonate in bile and pancreatic juices. When these gases move into the small intestine most of the oxygen and carbon dioxide are absorbed into the blood stream and the nitrogen is passed down the large bowel . In other words, the vast majority of gut wind originates from swallowing or digestion, not from bacterial fermentation.
Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide: the small intestine is the place where the food we eat is digested and absorbed the residues, such as dietary fibre and some carbohydrates, then pass through to the large bowel. The colon contains different kinds of bacteria which are essential to good health and which ferment material from the small intestine, producing large volumes of gasses such as hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide. Most of these gases are absorbed into the blood stream and eventually excreted in the breath but the rest is passed as flatus.
What Are The Complications Of Peptic Ulcers
With modern treatment, people with ulcer disease can lead normal lives without lifestyle changes or dietary restrictions. Cigarettesmokers have been found to have more complications from ulcers and treatment failure.
Eradication of the bacteria H. pylori not only heals ulcers but also prevents the recurrence of ulcer disease.
Patients with ulcers generally function quite comfortably.
Some ulcers probably heal even without medications . Therefore, the major problems resulting from ulcers are related to ulcer complications. Complications include
- obstruction of emptying of the passage of food.
Patients with bleeding ulcers may report
- a sense of light-headedness or ay even pass out upon standing ,
- and vomiting blood . Initial treatment involves rapid replacement of fluids intravenously.
Patients with persistent or severe bleeding may require blood transfusions. An endoscopy is performed to establish the site of bleeding and to stop active ulcer bleeding with the aid of specialized endoscopic instruments.
Duodenum – A peptic ulcer that forms in the narrow outlet from the stomach, it can obstruct the flow of stomach contents into the duodenum. Duodenal ulcers sometimes also may obstruct the flow of intestinal contents.
Patients with obstruction often report
Persistent H Pylori Infection
H. pylori is a bacteria that infects your stomach wall. It is one of the major causes of stomach and duodenal ulcers.
Therefore, H. pylori diagnosis and treatment is essential for the healing of h. pylori-associated ulcers.
Mostly, your doctor has tested you for H. pylori. H. Pylori persistence or recurrence after treatment can be the reason why your stomach ulcer is not healing.
Causes of Persistent H. pylori :
- Undiagnosed infection: if you didnt get tested for h. pylori infection before..
- Failure of treatment of h. pylori .
- Poor compliance to its 7-14 days treatment regimen.
- Recurrence of h. pylori infection: you can get re-infection after its eradication).
- Also, False-negative test results are common due to the use of PPIs as omeprazole and esomeprazole, which mask the presence of h. pylori. Your doctor should stop such medications before re-testing for h. pylori.
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Specialist Answers On Digestive Health Issues
Q1. Every time I eat, I have horrible gas and excessive bloating. Are these the signs of an ulcer?
The most common sign of an ulcer is a burning pain that is either made better by eating or aggravated between one and three hours after a meal, when food can no longer neutralize the acid produced by the stomach. Other ulcer symptoms include vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, and severe abdominal pain or bloating, brought on by a penetrating ulcer that has perforated and needs emergency surgical repair. Horrible gas and excessive bloating are more likely to be associated with gallstone-related disease, dyspepsia, or irritable bowel syndrome. I advise you to see your doctor and discuss your symptoms so you can be properly diagnosed.
Upper gastrointestinal Crohns disease is rare and only seen in less than 5 percent of Crohns disease patients. While ulcers in the stomach may be due to Crohns disease, more commonly they are due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use or to infection with bacteria called Helicobacter pylori. The biopsies taken of the normal tissue next to the ulcers were done to rule out H. pylori.
If H. pylori has been ruled out and you are not taking NSAIDs, then it is reasonable to assume that Crohns disease is the cause of the ulcers. Upper gastrointestinal Crohns disease is best treated with proton-pump inhibitors, like the Prevacid that you are taking, and anti-inflammatory medications, like the Humira and Imuran you are taking.
Fern, New Jersey
Change In Stool Appearance
Individuals suffering from a peptic ulcer may experience darker or even bloody stools, Dr. Harvey says. Black dark sticky and foul smelling faeces is termed Melena. It is a result of blood being digested and mixed with the normal stool. Melena is considered a more severe symptom of peptic ulcers. This can be a frightening experience for many and usually indicates that the ulcer is growing or becoming more severe, he adds.
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Diagnosis And Treatment Of A Peptic Ulcer
If your doctor suspects a peptic ulcer, he or she will order an upper endoscopy. During this procedure, a gastroenterologist passes a thin, flexible tube through the mouth and into the stomach and small bowel. A tiny camera allows the doctor to see the GI tract from within.
If that ulcer is actively bleeding or has high-risk features of bleeding, then treatments can be applied through the endoscope to stop the bleeding, Dr. Yalamanchili says. These treatments include clips that clamp bleeding blood vessels, cautery devices to burn the bleeding blood vessel shut, injectable medicines to slow bleeding and sprays that induce clotting.
Ulcers caused by H. pylori are typically treated with antibiotics, drugs called proton pump inhibitors and over-the-counter medicines such as Pepto Bismol.
When NSAIDs are causing the ulcer, patients are told to discontinue the drugs. If they cant discontinue these medications for medical reasons, a doctor can prescribe a special acid-reducing medication in combination with the NSAID to lower the risk of bleeding.
If you are experiencing the symptoms of a peptic ulcer, contact your doctor. If you dont have one, you can find one here.
What Is The Prognosis For People With Gastritis
Most cases of gastritis improve quickly with treatment. For most people, medications relieve gastritis. Your healthcare provider will recommend the most appropriate treatment based on whats causing gastritis. Antacids reduce stomach acid, while antibiotics clear up bacterial infections. You can also make changes like reducing your alcohol consumption and managing pain without NSAIDs.
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Burning Pain In Your Abdomen
This may seem like a no-brainer but the most common sign that people experience when they have a stomach ulcer is a persistent burning pain in their abdomen. This sensation occurs when juices in the stomach used for digestion come into contact with the open sore. For the most part, the pain is felt from the breastbone to navel and is often worse at night than during the day. On the other hand, if you are someone who frequently skips meals, you may find that you experience this pain much throughout the daytime.
Causes Of Peptic Ulcers
Peptic ulcers are mostly caused by the overuse of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications or an unresolved infection of the bacteria called H. pylori.
An infection with H. pylori triggers an inflammatory response in the bodys mucosal immune system, affecting the degradation of the epithelial layer cells. A similar mucosal injury is also caused by the use of NSAIDs through several mechanisms.
These injured areas develop into peptic ulcers upon contact with gastric acid.
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What Happens After Treatment
A repeat gastroscopy is usually advised a few weeks after treatment has finished. This is mainly to check that the ulcer has healed. It is also to be doubly certain that the ‘ulcer’ was not due to stomach cancer. If your ulcer was caused by H. pylori then a test is advised to check that the H. pylori infection has gone. This is done at least four weeks after the course of combination therapy has finished.
How I Do I Know If My Wind Burping Flatulence And Bloating Is Normal
The average person breaks wind up to 40 times a day. Anything less than this is normal. Often people believe that they have excessive flatus is because an embarrassing incident like a loud or smelly fart in public has led to the belief that something is wrong. However, if these events are severe, ongoing, troublesome or if you are worried about them you should discuss your concerns with your doctor.
In addition, if you develop burping associated with chest discomfort, especially discomfort associated with exertion, or if you have difficulties in swallowing you should seek medical advice.
If bloating is persistent or associated with weight loss, abdominal pain or diarrhoea you should see your doctor as it can be a symptoms of more serious bowel conditions.
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How Do You Know If You Have H Pylori Infection
There are some common symptoms which could indicate that you may have H. pylori infection, for example, ongoing indigestion and bloating. The following can also occur:
- Stomach pains
- Unintentional weight loss
However, these symptoms could be a sign of other illnesses as well so to really confirm that you have H. pylori infection, you need to have some tests.
There are a few types of tests available to diagnose H. pylori:
- A blood test This will confirm you have H. pylori but its not going to be accurate if youve just been treated for these bacteria and you got rid of it. Thats because the test will still show positive although the bacteria have recently been cleared.
- A breath test To perform this test you first need to drink a liquid containing a substance called urea. After drinking this, a sample of your breath is collected and then analysed. This test is useful to determine whether you still have an infection about a month after youve finished a course of treatment.
- An endoscopy This is a more invasive procedure which can be done at the same time when doctors are checking your stomach with a small camera. While they are doing that, they will take a small sample of tissue from your stomach for analysis. This is the most accurate test available for H. pylori but the patient will experience some physical discomfort during this procedure.
- The stool test A straight forward test which will analyse your stools for infection.
Nsaid Drugs And Stomach Ulcers
A group of painkillers known as NSAIDs carries a risk of stomach ulcers. The two best-known NSAIDs are aspirin and ibuprofen.
The risk of ulcers increases if the drugs are taken in high doses, or regularly for a long time.
Stronger NSAIDs, such as those that need a prescription, are riskier for stomach ulcers than those that can be bought over-the-counter .
People should always check labels and talk to a pharmacist or a doctor about any concerns with using painkillers. They may recommend an alternative such as acetaminophen.
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How Do You Treat Ulcers
There are a few things that you can do to relieve the symptoms of stomach ulcers. Avoiding spicy and fatty foods, managing stress, using over-the-counter antacids, and stopping the use of NSAIDs may provide relief. Your doctor may treat your peptic ulcer by prescribing antibiotics, or medications to block or reduce acid production.
Its important to know when you should seek care for stomach pain. Persistent abdominal pain that does not go away can indicate an underlying health problem.
Talk to your doctor if you experience frequent abdominal pain, or abdominal pain that does not go away, if you feel faint or have trouble breathing with abdominal pain, or if you have blood in your vomit or stool.
Your primary care doctor can help determine the best action to take, which may include a referral to a gastroenterologist: a physician that specializes in diagnosing and treating digestive diseases.
Complications Of Peptic Ulcers
Sometimes ulcers can erode into blood vessels and cause bleeding, the most severe complication.
This bleeding can manifest when patients pass melenablack, sticky, tarry-appearing stoolsor they might vomit red or coffee ground-appearing contents. This bleeding can be slow or rapid, which can be life-threatening, Dr. Yalamanchili says.
Rarely, an ulcer causes so much inflammation that it creates a hole in the GI tract. This perforation can be life-threatening and require surgical intervention.
When an ulcer forms at the passageway between the stomach and small intestine, it can cause inflammation that blocks food or liquid from passing through into the stomach, called a gastric outlet obstruction.
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Symptoms Of Peptic Ulcer Disease
The most common symptom is a burning pain in your stomach. It usually lasts for a few minutes to a few hours. It comes and goes for days or weeks at a time. The burning typically occurs between meals and at night. Small ulcers may cause no symptoms.
Other symptoms can include:
- Difficulty drinking as much liquid as usual
- Hunger or an empty feeling in your stomach after you eat
- Mild nausea
- Stomach pain that wakes you up at night
Less common symptoms include:
How Are Stomach Ulcers Diagnosed
Diagnosis and treatment will depend on your symptoms and the severity of your ulcer. To diagnose a stomach ulcer, your doctor will review your medical history along with your symptoms and any prescription or over-the-counter medications youre taking.
To rule out H. pylori infection, a blood, stool, or breath test may be ordered. With a breath test, youll be instructed to drink a clear liquid and breathe into a bag, which is then sealed. If H. pylori is present, the breath sample will contain higher-than-normal levels of carbon dioxide.
Other tests and procedures used to diagnose stomach ulcers include:
- Barium swallow: You drink a thick white liquid that coats your upper gastrointestinal tract and helps your doctor see your stomach and small intestine on X-rays.
- Endoscopy : A thin, lighted tube is inserted through your mouth and into the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. This test is used to look for ulcers, bleeding, and any tissue that looks abnormal.
- Endoscopic biopsy: A piece of stomach tissue is removed so it can be analyzed in a lab.
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What Are The Complications Of Gastritis
If left untreated, gastritis can lead to serious problems, such as:
- Anemia:H. pylori can cause gastritis or stomach ulcers .that bleed, thereby lowering your red blood counts .
- Pernicious anemia: Autoimmune gastritis can affect how your body absorbs vitamin B12. Youre at risk of pernicious anemia when you dont get enough B12 to make healthy red blood cells.
- Peritonitis: Gastritis can worsen stomach ulcers. Ulcers that break through the stomach wall can spill stomach contents into the abdomen. This rupture can spread bacteria, causing a dangerous infection called bacterial transloction or peritonitis. It also can lead to a widespread inflammation called . Sepsis can be fatal.
- Stomach cancer: Gastritis caused by H. pylori and autoimmune disease can cause growths in the stomach lining. These growths increase your risk of stomach cancer.
Are Peptic Ulcers Painful
The pain of ulcer disease correlates poorly with the presence or severity of active ulceration. Some individuals have persistent pain even after an ulcer is almost completely healed by medication. Others experience no pain at all. Ulcers often come and go spontaneously without the individual ever knowing that they are present unless a serious complication occurs.
Symptoms and signs of peptic ulcers disease vary. Some people with stomach ulcers do not have any symptoms or signs while others may have a few or several.
The most common symptom of a peptic ulcer is a dull or burning pain in the stomach. The pain may be felt anywhere between your belly button and breastbone. Pain from a peptic or stomach ulcer
Peptic ulcer other symptoms and signs that are less common include
Cigarette smoking not only causes ulcers, but it also increases the risk of complications from ulcers such as bleeding, obstruction, and perforation. Cigarette smoking also is a leading cause of failure of treatment for ulcers.
Contrary to popular belief, alcohol, coffee, colas, spicy foods, and caffeine have no proven role in ulcer formation. Similarly, there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that life stresses or personality types contribute to ulcer disease.
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What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor
If you have gastritis, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get gastritis?
- Should I get tested for H. pylori?
- Should I get tested for anemia?
- Can I get gastritis again?
- What steps can I take to avoid getting gastritis again?
- Should I make any dietary changes?
- What medications or supplements should I avoid?
- Do I need to cut out alcohol?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Gastritis is a common but generally treatable condition. You may be surprised to learn that your indigestion is actually due to gastritis. Some people with gastritis dont have any symptoms. Tests can help your healthcare provider determine the cause of gastritis. This allows you to receive the appropriate treatment.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 09/08/2020.