How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed
In diagnosing ovarian cancer, your doctor may initially perform a pelvic exam to look for changes that indicate the presence of a tumor. But smaller cancers may not be discovered through a pelvic exam. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography scans, and positron emission tomography scans, can aid doctors in finding tumors and making an ovarian cancer diagnosis. Analyzing a tissue sample, usually obtained through biopsy , is the only way to tell for sure if a mass is cancerous.
Staging ovarian cancer means evaluating how extensive it is in order to come up with the best treatment plan. Staging typically involves biopsy. Doctors will find out the answers to a series of questions about the primary tumor, including whether or not it is confined to the ovary and fallopian tube and how big it is. They will also determine if cancer cells are present in lymph nodes near the ovaries, and they will look for signs that the cancer has spread to tissues or organs further away, such as the brain. An analysis that factors in all these criteria will arrive at a cancer stage between 1 and 4 , with substages that provide more detail.
Bloating: Causes And Prevention Tips
How often do you hear yourself or friends complain about bloating? We often just say were bloated when we feel full, but for many women, the problem relates to a chronic underlying condition. If you feel bloated often, you may have a condition like irritable bowel syndrome , which affects up to 24 percent of women.
Linda Lee, M.D., explains common causes of bloating and what you can do to prevent this uncomfortable condition.
How Is Liver Disease Diagnosed
Screening for liver disease typically starts with blood tests that check what is called liver biochemistries, or tests of the liver function, says Lindenmeyer.
If those are abnormal, then frequently we follow that up with an imaging study of the liver, whether it be an ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI, she says. A specialized ultrasound device called FibroScan can give an estimate of the amount of scarring and fatty buildup in the liver.
Its important to note that sometimes people who have liver disease may have no evidence of abnormalities in their blood, says Lindenmeyer.
In some cases, a liver biopsy may be necessary to see how much scarring is in the liver.
Given that hepatitis C is often asymptomatic, screening baby boomers is critical for early diagnosis, says Lindenmeyer. We have excellent medications for hepatitis C that have excellent cure rates. Its something that can halt the progression of liver disease and potentially even improve the liver once its been treated, she says.
People who have a history of alcohol abuse or are known to drink alcohol excessively should have their liver function tested, along with those with a history of liver disease, as well as people at risk for having a genetically inherited form of liver disease, says Lindenmeyer.
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Proven Ways To Reduce Or Eliminate Bloating
Bloating is when your belly feels swollen after eating .
It is usually caused by excess gas production or disturbances in the movement of the muscles of the digestive system .
Bloating can often cause pain, discomfort and a stuffed feeling. It can also make your stomach look bigger .
Bloating is not the same as water retention, but the two terms are often used interchangeably. Put simply, bloating involves excessive amounts of solids, liquids or gas in your digestive system.
However, in some people, bloating is caused mostly by increased sensitivity. It just feels as if there is increased pressure in the abdomen, even though there isnt (
Although bloating is sometimes caused by serious medical conditions, it is most often caused by the diet and some foods or ingredients you are intolerant to.
Here are 11 proven ways to reduce or eliminate bloating.
Abdominal Inflammation In Cats Due To Liver Tumors
The presence of a tumor or tumors in the liver is another cause which may explain why a cat has a swollen or hard belly. This disorder is more common in older cats. In these cases, older cats will usually show other non-specific symptoms, i.e. those which are common to several diseases. Concurrent symptoms usually only occur when the damage is already advanced.
When the cat has abdominal distension due to tumors, the belly area either enlarges or becomes loose and flabby. The tumor is a rigid mass which means the cat’s stomach feels hard. We might also see other symptoms such as:
- Hair loss
- Fragile skin
When hair and skin is affected, it is likely the condition is in an advanced stage and treatment is more difficult. They will also become very weak and frail.
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Having A Food Intolerance
Typically, if someone is feels bloated, it is because of their food or water intake, but even if you havent eaten too much, you may have eaten the wrong thing. Certain food intolerances or sensitives to spicy or acidic foods can cause the gastrointestinal tract to have a more difficult time than usual.
An undiagnosed intolerance to foods can cause a lot of bloating, Hoffman said. The body is trying to break down the foods for the body to use, and a lot of gas can be the result of that work.
If you experience a lot of bloating, try keeping a food journal to track what you eat, when you notice bloating and the amount of discomfort you experience.
The Role Of Luminal Contents
Intestinal Gas Endogenous gas production via the fermentation of luminal contents is a significant contributor to raised intra-abdominal volume. Lactulose, which is poorly absorbed in the small bowel and therefore fermented in the colon, has been shown to be associated with bloating and distension in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic constipation, suggesting luminal gas production as a contributing mechanism. Fermentation and thus gas production are influenced by the substrate and intestinal bacterial species, and studies show that alterations in the dietary intake of indigestible carbohydrates influence symptoms of bloating. In addition, reported alterations in the fecal microbiota of patients with IBS in comparison with those of healthy controls have been postulated to result in alterations of luminal fermentation, supported by the observation that patients with IBS have a lower cecal pH, presumably as a consequence of the increased production of short-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, the role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of bloating is supported by studies in which the modulation of bacteria with antibiotics resulted in symptomatic decreases in bloating.
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How To Diagnose The Cause Of A Swollen Abdomen In Cats
This article was co-authored by Deanne Pawlisch, CVT, MA. Deanne Pawlisch is a Certified Veterinary Technician, who does corporate training for veterinary practices and has taught at the NAVTA-approved Veterinary Assistant Program at the Harper College in Illinois and in 2011 was elected to the board of the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Foundation. Deanne has been a Board Member of the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Foundation in San Antonio, Texas since 2011. She holds a BS in Anthropology from Loyola University and an MA in Anthropology from Northern Illinois University.There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 211,629 times.
A swollen abdomen is a potential symptom of a wide variety of ailments in cats. Swollen abdomens may occur quickly or over time. Regardless of the timeline, though, you should treat a swollen abdomen as a potentially serious condition and try to come to a diagnosis as quickly as possible. By observing your cat, consulting with your vet, and considering possible ailments, youll better be able to arrive at a diagnosis.
Get More Active Every Day
Exercise helps your body move stool and gas out of the colon and may make bowel movements more regular. Exercise also releases extra sodium from the body through sweating, which can help to relieve water retention.
It is vital to drink plenty of water before and after exercising to stay hydrated, as dehydration can make constipation worse.
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Reasons Why Your Dogs Stomach Is Hard And What To Do
When your dogs stomach swells or hardens, there may be a serious cause for concern, or it may just be a case of your dog overheating. Its important to know the difference between something that can take care of itself versus something that can cause your dog serious harm.
The four main reasons why your dogs stomach may be hard are Gastric Dilation Volvulus , Peritonitis, Cushings Syndrome, and Ascites. Of course, there may be a few other reasons, but these are the most likely ones. By knowing the symptoms of stomach problems in dogs, you will know what to do in the event of something more serious happening.
Take note that when a dog has stomach swelling or hardness, your pooch may be in critical condition. Swelling in dogs can be fatal if the situation is not remedied promptly. Take your dog to the veterinarian as soon as you notice stomach swelling. A veterinarian is the best person to diagnose your dog because you do not want to misinterpret their symptoms and cause them more harm.
Signs And Symptoms Of Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is particularly life-threatening because some of its early signs are vague and easy to ignore or blame on other, far less dangerous health conditions. Symptoms often dont become apparent until the cancer has spread and become difficult to treat.
- Difficulty eating or feeling full too quickly
- Urinary discomfort unusual urgency or frequency
If any of these symptoms are persistent and unusual for you, its important to discuss them with yourdoctor. The American Cancer Society recommends that women see a doctor as soon as possible if they experience any of these symptoms more than 12 times in a month.
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Editorial Sources And Fact
Treatment And Medication Options For Ovarian Cancer
If the cancer is diagnosed early , the operation may be limited to removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, a procedure called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, as well as the uterus . Depending on the cancer and the stage, some women who want to preserve their fertility may be able to keep one ovary and fallopian tube, and their uterus.
More extensive surgery may be necessary for cancers that have spread, assuming the patient is healthy enough to withstand it.
Surgery is important for staging the cancer determining how advanced it is in order to settle on the best treatment and make a prognosis.
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Warning Signs And Symptoms
Weight loss is one of the main warning signs for serious bloating. If you find yourself losing more than a few pounds without changing your diet or starting a new exercise regimen, that should be cause for concern, especially if its 10 percent or more of your body weight. Weight loss can be caused by tumors that press on the intestines, making you feel full after just a small amount of food, or from substances secreted by tumors that suppress your appetite.
Ascites is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen or pelvis. It can cause bloating, weight gain, and a rapidly expanding waistline. Ascites is usually caused by liver disease, but cancer is the culprit about 10 percent of the time. A large amount of fluid can make you look and feel like youre several months pregnant. The combination of bloating and jaundice, which turns the eyes and skin yellow, can be a sign of cancer thats spread to the liver, although it can also occur with more benign forms of liver disease like hepatitis.
Blood in your stool, vaginal bleeding in between periods, or postmenopausal vaginal bleeding can all be associated with serious bloating. Fortunately, the most common causes of these symptoms arent the most serious, but bleeding should always be evaluated because it can be a sign of cancer, particularly colon or uterine cancer.
Behavioral And Psychological Therapies
It is recognized that the interaction between the enteric nervous system and the psychological state is implicated in the pathogenesis of IBS. As such, behavioral and psychological therapies are viewed with optimism, but the literature is insufficient, particularly with regard to bloating. Two Cochrane reviews, one on hypnotherapy and the other on psychological therapies in IBS, both concluded that their findings were hampered by small sample size, validity, heterogeneity, and outcome definition.
Hypnotherapy Hypnotherapy has been reported to reduce symptomatic bloating in patients with IBS, and the benefit is sustained over time.,, The decrease in bloating symptoms appears to be independent of the subtype of IBS. There is also evidence that hypnotherapy normalizes rectal sensory thresholds in patients with IBS,, and such normalization might be expected to confer an alteration in the perception of bloating. A Cochrane review concluded that hypnotherapy may be useful in patients with IBS who have failed conventional therapy in comparison with either waiting list controls or IBS patients receiving standard care, but the review advised caution in interpreting the results because of poor methodology.
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What Happens If Liver Disease Goes Untreated
Untreated liver disease can result in cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, which carries its own spectrum of complications, according to Lindenmeyer. Once patients have cirrhosis, or end stages scarring of the liver, theyre at risk for developing whats called portal hypertension, she says.
Portal hypertension is a high pressure system in the liver that causes complications that can be associated with ascites and edema , as well as gastrointestinal bleeding.
Confusion can result from advanced or end-stage liver disease and infections, says Lindenmeyer. This happens when the liver isnt adequately removing toxins from your blood and they build up in the brain.
How Is Liver Disease Treated
Although every form of liver disease is different, early diagnosis and subsequent treatment and lifestyle changes improve your chances for preserving normal liver function, says Lindenmeyer.
Liver disease in general is very treatable if you catch it early and prevent ongoing insult to the liver over time, she says. For any alcohol-related liver disease, it is essential to stop consuming alcohol right away to avoid any further damage to the liver, says Lindenmeyer.
For people with hepatitis C, early diagnosis and treatment can halt the progression of liver disease or even improve liver function, she says.
If you can diagnose fatty liver disease without the presence of advanced inflammation or scarring, theres a lot of evidence that you can improve your liver inflammation and reduce fat with multiple interventions, says Lindenmeyer. Strategies include weight loss and tight control of the metabolic risk factors, including diabetes and dyslipidemia .
Treatment varies according to the kind of liver disease you have, says Lindenmeyer. There are antiviral medications for hepatitis B and C there is no treatment for hepatitis A, she says. Its important to maintain your vaccination status to prevent getting infected with hepatitis A or B, she says, adding that there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
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See A Vet For Your Dogs Swollen Stomach
While there is a chance that your dogs stomach is swollen just from eating too much, there is a greater chance that its something much more serious. Look for additional signs and symptoms and call your vet immediately if your pups belly is swollen and hard.
Because of the nature of the above diseases and conditions, there is no time to waste. Quick action can be a matter of life and death. Its important to regularly self-examine your four-legged friend to make sure that you dont notice anything out of the ordinary. By staying vigilant and keeping a watchful eye, you can protect your pup from further complications.
The emergency vets at VEG are available 7 days a week to help care for your dogs swollen stomach. At all of our VEG locations, well work to get to the bottom of your dogs condition and decide the best course of actions to help treat your pet.
How Long Do You Have To Treat Dog Bloat
Bloat/GDV can kill a dog within an hour if untreated. This is why we vets cant stress it enough: If you notice that your dog is bloated, it is officially the time to get them to the nearest open veterinary hospital ASAP.
If your regular veterinarians office is closed, bring your dog immediately to the closest Animal ER. Please, don’t trifle with or delay in the face of this condition. GDV is no joke!
Still unsure if your dog has GDV? Even if you think theres a chance that your dog may currently be suffering from GDV, please err on the side of caution and take them for immediate veterinary evaluation. The cost of an emergency vet visit will pale in comparison to the peace of mind youll get by doing so. Below is an email from one reader whose dog was fortunate enough not to have bloat, but was thankful she had the information from our 101 Essential Tips book that she took the appropriate precautionary measures.
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