Lymphoma Of The Stomach References
Explains What Prompted Her To Do Something About A Lump She’d Had On Her Neck For Years
Some people with lymphoma notice only swollen lymph nodes, others also have one or more other symptoms. The most common are night sweats, fevers, weight loss, loss of appetite, tiredness, cough, breathlessness, or a persistent generalised itch. An absence of the most common symptoms – such as night sweats – sometimes falsely reassured people that there was nothing wrong. Some people recognised only later that the symptoms of this sort that they had experienced had been connected with their lymphoma. Middle aged women tended to attribute night sweats to the menopause. Weight loss was sometimes put down to dieting or breastfeeding. One man’s prolonged weight loss was attributed to his emphysema. Tiredness was often attributed to other health problems, work stress or parenting.
Signs And Symptoms Of Non
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can cause many different signs and symptoms, depending on the type of lymphoma and where it is in the body. Sometimes it might not cause any symptoms until it grows quite large.
Having one or more symptoms doesnt mean you definitely have lymphoma. In fact, many of the symptoms listed here are more likely to be caused by other conditions, such as an infection. Still, if you have any of these symptoms, have them checked by a doctor so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed.
Some common signs and symptoms include:
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Feeling full after only a small amount of food
- Chest pain or pressure
- Shortness of breath or cough
- Severe or frequent infections
Some people with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma have what are known as B symptoms:
- Fever without an infection
- Drenching night sweats
- Weight loss without trying
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Night Sweats Chills And Fever
Fever is a natural response to an infection, but it may also be a sign of advanced lymphoma. Most lymphoma-related fevers are relatively low-grade. Theyre often accompanied by chills.
Night sweats may occur if you have a fever while asleep. Intense night sweats associated with lymphoma can cause you to wake up to soaking wet sheets. Excessive sweating can sometimes occur during the day as well.
You should tell your doctor about any unexplained fevers that come and go for two weeks, repeatedly. They can be a sign of lymphoma.
Malt Is An Acronym It Stands For:
Thus, MALT lymphomas are non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in which the cancerous lymphocytes gather in areas where there is mucosa tissue . That said, ‘MALT lymphoma’ is no longer a lymphoma classification rather, MALT lymphomas are now considered extranodal of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type. However, for the present article and for the sake of simplicity and understanding we will use the former term of MALT lymphoma.
It is broadly divided into gastric MALT lymphomas and non-gastric MALT lymphomas.
Unlike many other cancers, the cause of most cases of MALT lymphomas that arise in the stomach appears to be infectious agents, specifically one known as H. pylori. The disease is also not uncommon in people with autoimmune disorders
Because of the infectious nature of many MALT lymphomas, treatment with antibiotics alone has proven to be very effective.
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A Recent Case Study Describes The Varied Range Of Gi Lymphoma Presentations These Insights May Help Practitioners When Evaluating Patients For The Most Appropriate Therapy
Gastrointestinal lymphomas are a diverse group of diseases with variable prevalence, says Lauren B. Smith, MD, Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
- Gastrointestinal lymphomas are a diverse group of diseases with variable prevalence, which makes diagnosis challenging.
- Symptoms of primary gastric lymphomas can mimic other GI conditions, and the gastrointestinal lymphomas themselves can even mimic each other.
- This recent case study describes the varied range of GI lymphoma presentations, which may help practitioners determine appropriate therapy.
These lymphomas account for 30% to 40% of all extra-nodal non-Hodgkins lymphomas, 10% to 15% of all non-Hodgkins lymphomas, and 1% to 4% of all gastrointestinal cancers.1 Most gastrointestinal lymphomas originate in B cells, with the most typical being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma , although T cell-derived lymphomas also occur in the gastrointestinal tract.2 The most common anatomical site is the stomach, followed by the small and large intestines , with esophageal lymphoma being extremely rare.1
Gastrointestinal lymphomas, especially those less commonly encountered, can be diagnostically challenging due to their multifarious clinical presentations and heterogeneous histopathologic and immunophenotypic nature.1,2
A diagnostic challenge
- Gastric lymphoma
- Intestinal lymphoma
- Esophageal lymphoma
Causes Of Stomach Cancer
The most common type of stomach cancer in cats is lymphoma.
Gastric lymphoma, or lymphoma of the stomach, can occur as a single, isolated mass within the stomach wall or it may be a component of more widespread lymphoma affecting the entire gastrointestinal tract.
In most cases, the cause of a cats lymphoma is unknown. Two feline viral infections, Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus , have been shown to increase the likelihood of an infected cat developing lymphoma.
Other factors associated with feline lymphoma include living in a home with smokers and inflammatory bowel disease . However, it is impossible to determine why one cat develops lymphoma and another cat does not.
A number of other cancers can develop in the stomach of cats.
These cancers include adenocarcinoma, adenoma, cell tumor, carcinoid tumor, extramedullary plasmacytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor , leiomyosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and other sarcomas. The underlying cause of these stomach cancers is unknown.
While stomach cancer in humans is often attributed to Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium associated with ulcers, there does not seem to be a connection between Helicobacter infection and stomach cancer in cats.
Similarly, diet does not seem to play a role in feline stomach cancer in the way that diet can predispose some humans to stomach cancer.
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A New Malt Lymphoma Prognostic Index
In September 2017, Thieblemont et al have published the results of a new prognostic index for MALT diagnosed patients. The 3 individual features maintaining the greatest prognostic significance were age > 70 years, Ann Arbor stage III or IV, and an elevated LDH. This index identified 3 groups: low, intermediate, and high risk . The 5-year event-free survival rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 70%, 56%, and 29%, respectively. The prognostic utility was retained in both gastric and nongastric lymphomas and was confirmed in the validation set, being an important tool to identify patients with MALT lymphoma at risk of poor outcomes.
What Are The Risk Factors For Lymphoma Of Stomach
No specific risk factors have been identified for Lymphoma of Stomach. However, the condition is known to be associated with the following factors:
- Autoimmune disorders
- Advanced age older individuals commonly have a higher risk
- Individuals with weak immune system
Besides the above, the following general factors may contribute towards lymphoma formation and development:
- Family history of immune disease
- The presence of any systemic disease
- Profession involving radiation exposure, which may include nuclear plant workers, pilots, astronauts, etc.
- Certain medications and drugs
International Prognostic Index: According to some scientists, the International Prognostic Index may not be very helpful in evaluating Lymphoma of Stomach. However, some scientists believe that it is helpful in some cases, to determine the prognosis.
The International Prognostic Index, for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lists a few factors that determine the overall risk:
- Age over 60 years
- Elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase – LDH
- Performance status, i.e. the overall health condition of the individual, which could range from being fully active to being completely disabled
- Individual, who have already suffered from lymphoma, or other types of blood cancers, may have a relapse or a recurrence
- Presence of an immunodeficiency syndrome, like AIDS, is a high risk factor
- Those infected with Epstein-Barr virus are also prone to this lymphoma type
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Lymphomas Early Disease Signs
1. Swollen but painless lymph nodes, which can appear in any part of the body, but are more common in the neck, armpit, and groin. Not only is it one of the first signs of the disease, but it can also be the only one.
2. Swelling of a limb experienced during the early stages of lymphoma as a consequence of the swelling lymph nodes.
Local Symptoms And Systemic Symptoms
Some symptoms of lymphoma affect the area in and around the lymphoma itself. These are called local symptoms. The most common local symptom is a swollen lymph node or nodes. Other local symptoms are caused by swollen nodes pressing on nearby tissues. The symptoms you experience depend on where the swollen lymph nodes are. You might have:
- chest symptoms, such as cough or breathlessness
Around 1 in 4 people with Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 in 3 people with high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma may have systemic symptoms. Systemic symptoms are less common in people with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Stomach Cancer
Early-stage stomach cancer rarely causes symptoms. In countries where screening for stomach cancer is not routine, such as the United States, most stomach cancers arent found until theyve grown fairly large or have spread outside the stomach.
When stomach cancer does cause signs and symptoms, they can include:
- Poor appetite
- Vague discomfort in the abdomen, usually above the navel
- Feeling full after eating only a small meal
- Heartburn or indigestion
- Vomiting, with or without blood
- Swelling or fluid build-up in the abdomen
- Blood in the stool
- Feeling tired or weak, as a result of having too few red blood cells
- Yellowing of the skin and eyes , if the cancer spreads to the liver
Most of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by things other than stomach cancer, such as a viral infection or an ulcer. Some of these symptoms may also be caused by other types of cancer. But people who have any of these problems, especially if they dont go away or get worse, should see a doctor so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
Ku GY, Ilson DH. Chapter 72: Cancer of the Stomach. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier 2020.
Extranodal Disease And Non
Extranodal lymphoma in abdomen symptoms is more commonly found in non-Hodgkinâs lymphoma than with Hodgkinâs lymphoma. In fact, extranodal lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in up to 30% of patients. It is also more likely to be present in and intermediate- to high-grade tumors. While the stomach is the area of the gastrointestinal tract most commonly affected by extranodal disease, it can also be present in the small bowel, pharynx, large bowel, and esophagus. Moreover, 20-30% of all extranodal stomach lymphomas involve the abdominal lymph node.
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Risk Factors For Lymphoma Of The Stomach
Risk factors for gastric lymphoma include:
- Age Median age for diagnosis of gastric lymphoma is age 60-65 years
- Sex Males are affected 2-3 times more commonly than females
- Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection this is a bacteria that can grow and live within the gastrointestinal tract. Its presence has been associated with a number of pathologies including gastric ulcers and gastric lymphoma. However, given that H. pylori infects over 50% of the worlds population and the majority of these do not develop gastric lymphoma, other factors are believed to be involved.
- Other chronic infections including hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus
- Autoimmune disorder of the thyroid or salivary glands
- Coeliac disease.
What Should I Do If I Am Showing Symptoms Of Non
While the presence of these non-Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms does not necessarily mean you have cancer, it is important to promptly consult a physician who can provide you with an accurate diagnosis and comprehensive treatment, if necessary. The specialists in Moffitt Cancer Centers Malignant Hematology Program provide this level of specialized treatment to patients with all types of lymphoma by collaborating as a tumor board to ensure each patients treatment plan is tailored to address the challenges of their unique cancer. Our individualized treatment plans, in addition to the expertise of our physicians, can make all the difference in providing the best chance at a favorable outcome and an improved quality of life for our patients.
If you would like to consult with a Moffitt physician about your non-Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms, call or submit a new patient registration form online. Referrals are not required.
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How Is Lymphoma Of Stomach Diagnosed
Lymphoma of Stomach diagnosis is generally performed by obtaining biopsy samples from the stomach/affected region and examining them under a microscope to detect the cancerous cells. There are other tests and procedures that could help in the diagnosis and these include:
- A thorough physical examination and a complete medical history, which is very important
- Blood tests that may include:
- Complete blood cell count blood test
- Absolute lymphocyte count on peripheral blood
- Liver function blood test
- Lactate dehydrogenase blood test
What Does A Lymphoma Rash Look Like
A rash produced by lymphoma can have different appearances, and you may have more than one type. It may be itchy and scaly, cover large areas of your body, and the color can range from red to purple.
You may have:
- Papules, which look like small pimples
- Patches, which are flat
- Plaques, which are thick and either raised or depressed into your skin
You may also be able to see lumps under the skin caused by nodules or tumors.
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Common Lymphoma Symptoms Described By Real Patients
Lymphoma comes in many different forms, and can cause a wide variety of symptoms in patients prior to diagnosis.
First signs and symptoms of lymphoma:
- Lump or swelling in neck, throat, or jaw
- Shortness of breath / difficulty breathing
- Fever, night sweats and/or chills
- Loss of appetite
- Stomach / abdominal pain
- Body aches
In addition to the above more common lymphoma symptoms, some patients have also experienced the following: Difficulty swallowing, a bump on the sternum, swelling in the legs, bloating, a rash on neck and chest, and others
How patients described their first signs of lymphoma
Its common for pre-diagnosis lymphoma patients to experience a number of symptoms at the same time, rather than a single one. Many are interpreted at first as symptoms of a cold, flu, or general fatigue.
Read on for highlights from lymphoma patient stories of how they first experienced signs that something was wrong.
Lump or swelling in neck, throat, or jaw
Tony Donk | Read more
I noticed a growth on my neck. Usually, if theres swelling from a viral infection, you see symmetrical swelling, so just having it on the right side only was a little alarming.
Charlie Brickham | Read more
Danielle Doyle | Read more
Symptoms From Lymphoma In The Chest
When lymphoma starts in the thymus or lymph nodes in the chest, it may press on the nearby trachea , which can cause coughing, trouble breathing, or a feeling of chest pain or pressure.
The superior vena cava is the large vein that carries blood from the head and arms back to the heart. It passes near the thymus and lymph nodes inside the chest. Lymphomas in this area may push on the SVC, which can cause the blood to back up in the veins. This can lead to swelling in the head, arms, and upper chest. It can also cause trouble breathing and a change in consciousness if it affects the brain. This is called SVC syndrome. It can be life-threatening and must be treated right away.
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