Tuesday, February 27, 2024

Where Does Stomach Cancer Spread To

Diagnosing Metastatic Lung Cancer

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After the doctor asks about your health history and gives you a physical exam, they may do one or more clinical tests to diagnose secondary lung cancer. These typically include:

  • Chest X-ray
  • Lung needle biopsy

These tools help the doctor find the source of cancerous cells. Theyâll look like cancer cells from the primary site, not like lung cancer cells.

Treatment Options By Stage

Stage 0

Treatment of stage 0 is usually surgery .

Stage I Gastric Cancer

Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery .
  • Surgery followed by chemoradiation therapy.
  • A clinical trial of chemoradiation therapy given before surgery.

Stage II Gastric Cancer

Treatment of stage II gastric cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery .
  • Surgery followed by chemoradiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy given before and after surgery.
  • A clinical trial of surgery followed by chemoradiation therapy testing new anticancer drugs.
  • A clinical trial of chemoradiation therapy given before surgery.

Stage III Gastric Cancer

Treatment of stage III gastric cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery .

The Following Stages Are Used For Gastric Cancer:

Stage 0

In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the inside lining of the mucosa of the stomach wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I

In stage I, cancer has formed in the inside lining of the mucosa of the stomach wall. Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB, depending on where the cancer has spread.

  • Stage IA: Cancer may have spread into the submucosa of the stomach wall.
  • Stage IB: Cancer:
  • may have spread into the submucosa of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor or
  • has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall.

Stage II

Stage II gastric cancer is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread.

  • Stage IIA: Cancer:
  • has spread to the subserosa of the stomach wall or
  • has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor or
  • may have spread to the submucosa of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor.
  • Stage IIB: Cancer:
  • has spread to the serosa of the stomach wall or
  • has spread to the subserosa of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor or
  • has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor or
  • may have spread to the submucosa of the stomach wall and is found in 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor.
  • Stage III

  • Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to:
  • Stage IV

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    Treating Metastatic Gastric Carcinoma

    Doctors suggest that for metastatic cancer, a patient requires systemic therapy. Medications should be given orally or injected into the bloodstream to reach the cancer cells throughout the body, such as via chemotherapy or hormone therapy.

    Surgery is not a recommended treatment for metastatic stomach cancer. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can prove to be beneficial to help shrink the tumor or cancer. A combination of these two therapies is also preferred in some cases. In a few cases, targeted therapy is also recommended if there is no positive effect of any other therapy and the condition worsens. In a small number of cases, doctor might recommend surgery if the bleeding or blockage occurs

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    Surgical treatment failure with resection site and intraabdominal tumors are the most common sites of first recurrence in gastric cancer after potentially curative resection. Regardless of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or postoperative adjuvant treatment, this local-regional progression occurs. The peritoneal surfaces and liver remain the major sites of recurrence with a reduced local progression when extended lymphadenectomy as compared to limited surgery is used.

    Figure 1. The tumor cell entrapment hypothesis suggests three mechanisms for microscopic residual cancer cells in patients having an R-0 gastrectomy.

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    How Is Stomach Cancer Treated

    There are several approaches to treating stomach cancer. In many cases, surgery can be avoided.

    In the early stages when the cancer is limited to the superficial layers of the stomach, the cancer can be removed through an upper endoscopy performed by a gastroenterologist. In this procedure , the tumor is dissected from the rest of the gastric wall and removed through the mouth.

    Once the tumor invades beyond the superficial layers of the stomach, surgery will be required to remove the stomach and connect the esophagus to the small intestines to allow for digestion.

    Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill the cancer cells. These treatments are generally combined.

    There are also several drugs to treat stomach cancer. Treatment depends on how severe the cancer is and is decided upon by a doctor after diagnosis.

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    Youre Seeing Blood In Your Stool

    While, yes, this can be a sign of stomach cancer, its also linked to tons of other conditions that arent cancer-related, says Allyson Ocean, M.D., a gastrointestinal oncologist at Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian.

    If it is stomach cancer, however, the blood is likely related to inflammation caused by cancer, and tends to show up in more advanced stages of the disease, though it can also show up earlier on.

    Signs And Symptoms Of Ascites

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    Small amounts of fluid in the abdomen rarely cause symptoms, or signs of a problem. As the amount of fluid increases, symptoms start to show. The abdomen swells, the skin stretches tightly across the stomach area and the belly button becomes flat or pushed out. This puts pressure on the stomach and lungs and can cause other symptoms.

    Possible signs of ascites are:

    • Swelling, discomfort, pressure or pain in the stomach area
    • Increased waist size or weight gain
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Relieving related symptoms

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    Tests That Examine The Stomach And Esophagus Are Used To Diagnose Gastric Cancer

    The following tests and procedures may be used:

    • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patients health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
    • Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual amount of a substance can be a sign of disease.
    • Complete blood count : A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:
    • The amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
    • The portion of the sample made up of red blood cells.
  • Upper endoscopy: A procedure to look inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum to check for abnormal areas. An endoscope is passed through the mouth and down the throat into the esophagus. Enlarge Upper endoscopy. A thin, lighted tube is inserted through the mouth to look for abnormal areas in the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine.
  • Surgery To Ease Your Symptoms

    If your stomach cancer has spread beyond your stomach, it may not be possible to remove it using surgery.

    However, if your stomach has been significantly affected by cancer it can cause a blockage, which prevents food from being properly digested. A blocked stomach can cause symptoms such as stomach pain, vomiting and feeling very full after eating.

    If your stomach is blocked, there are a few options:

    • stenting a stent is a plastic or wire mesh tube inserted through the oesophagus using an endoscope under local anaesthetic after being inserted, the stent will be expanded and open up the stomach
    • partial or total gastrectomy to remove the blockage and improve your symptoms

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    Diagnosis: How Do We Detect Metastatic Stomach Cancer

    In stage 4, when cancer has spread to farther parts of the body, it is diagnosed as metastatic stomach cancer or metastatic gastric cancer . Common organs affected by MGC are liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bones. If the stomach cancer has metastasized to lungs, it can be referred to as stomach cancer with lung metastasis.

    How Might Pain Affect People With Cancer

    Visual Guide to Stomach Ulcers

    Any type of pain, not just cancer pain, can affect all parts of a persons life. Some days it may be better or worse than others.

    If you have pain, you might not be able to do your job well or take part in other day-to-day activities. You may have trouble sleeping and eating. You might be irritable with the people you love. Its easy to get frustrated, sad, and even angry when youre in pain. Family and friends dont always understand how youre feeling, and you may feel very alone. This is not unusual, so its important to talk about your pain with your health care team so they can help.

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    Symptoms Of Gastric Cancer Include Indigestion And Stomach Discomfort Or Pain

    These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by gastric cancer or by other conditions.

    In the early stages of gastric cancer, the following symptoms may occur:

    • Indigestion and stomach discomfort.
    • Weight loss for no known reason.
    • Stomach pain.
    • Jaundice .
    • Ascites .
    • Trouble swallowing.

    Check with your doctor if you have any of these problems.

    Where Does Metastatic Stomach Cancer Spread To

    Metastatic, or stage 4, stomach cancer has advanced and spread beyond the stomach and nearby lymph nodes to distant areas of the body. This type of cancer is most likely to spread to the liver or peritoneum, which is the membrane lining of the abdominal cavity. Other areas where stomach cancer commonly spreads include the lungs and bones.

    Stomach cancer that has spread to distant areas can present a variety of symptoms. These include stomach pain, bloody stool, nausea, abdominal bloating and trouble swallowing. Additional symptoms related to where the cancer has spread are also possible. For example, if stomach cancer has metastasized to the liver, jaundice may occur. Or, if the lungs are affected, symptoms may include shortness of breath, difficulty breathing or a persistent cough.

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    How To Distinguish A Regular Bloat From A Sign Of Cancer

    For bloating to be a cause for concern, it generally needs to have lasted for more than two weeks in a month, saids Monique Swain, MD, an obstetrician and gynecologist at Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, writing in an editorial on the medical website Health.

    If bloating is persistent and does not vary with changing eating habits or bowel movements, it is a good idea to seek medical care, added Alex Hewlett, DO, associate professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, in the same article.

    Another telltale sign that bloating could be a sign of ovarian cancer is a change in your toilet habits.

    Out-of-the-ordinary bowel or urinary issues is a sign that something is wrong.

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    For example, you might suddenly need to go to the bathroom more urgently if a mass is big enough and pressing on the bladder, said Dr Swain.

    Bloating can also signal advanced bowel cancer.

    As Cancer Research UK explains, advanced bowel cancer can sometimes cause swelling of the tummy .

    This is due to a build up of fluid in the tummy .

    After Gastric Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Stomach Or To Other Parts Of The Body

    Gastric Cancer Overview – Mayo Clinic

    The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the stomach or to otherparts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from thestaging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to knowthe stage in order to plan treatment.

    The following tests andprocedures may be used in the staging process:

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    After A Diagnosis Of Stomach Cancer

    After being diagnosed with a stomach cancer, you may feel shocked, upset, anxious or confused. These are normal responses. A diagnosis of a stomach or oesophageal cancer affects each person differently. For most it will be a difficult time, however some people manage to continue with their normal daily activities.

    You may find it helpful to talk about your treatment options with your doctors, family and friends. Ask questions and seek as much information as you feel you need. It is up to you as to how involved you want to be in making decisions about your treatment.

    Learn more about best stomach cancer care:

    What Stages Have To Do With Cancer Spread

    Cancers are staged according to tumor size and how far it has spread at the time of diagnosis. Stages help doctors decide which treatments are most likely to work and give a general outlook.

    There are different types of staging systems and some are specific to certain types of cancer. The following are the basic stages of cancer:

    • In situ. Precancerous cells have been found, but they havent spread to surrounding tissue.
    • Localized. Cancerous cells havent spread beyond where they started.
    • Regional. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.
    • Distant. Cancer has reached distant organs or tissues.
    • Unknown. Theres not enough information to determine the stage.
    • Stage 0 or CIS. Abnormal cells have been found but have not spread into surrounding tissue. This is also called precancer.
    • Stages 1, 2, and 3. The diagnosis of cancer is confirmed. The numbers represent how large the primary tumor has grown and how far the cancer has spread.
    • Stage 4. Cancer has metastasized to distant parts of the body.

    Your pathology report may use the TNM staging system, which provides more detailed information as follows:

    T: Size of primary tumor

    • TX: primary tumor cant be measured
    • T0: primary tumor cant be located
    • T1, T2, T3, T4: describes the size of the primary tumor and how far it may have grown into surrounding tissue

    N: Number of regional lymph nodes affected by cancer

    M: Whether cancer has metastasized or not

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    Metastatic Lung Cancer Outlook

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Thereâs no way to prevent lung cancer, but there are ways to treat it. And thereâs reason to be hopeful: Doctors are working on new treatments every day. Immunotherapy, which boosts your bodyâs own cancer-fighting powers, has shown promise in recent years.

    Your outlook for living with metastatic lung cancer depends in part on where the cancer started. Itâs rare, but people with sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, colon cancer, or melanoma can sometimes be cured with surgery. And chemotherapy may cure some people with cancer that started in the testicles or lymph nodes.

    Most people with this type of cancer can expect to live about 5 years. But that doesn’t take into account newer treatments, like immunotherapy, which boosts your bodyâs own cancer-fighting powers. And it also doesnât reflect that everyone is different. How well you respond to treatment depends on what treatment you and your doctor chose, your overall health when you were diagnosed, how soon you were diagnosed, and how far the cancer has spread.

    Living with lung cancer takes a toll on your mental health, not just your physical health. So itâs key to take steps to manage your stress and anxiety.

    Joining a cancer support group or talking privately with a therapist are booth good ways to deal with your feelings. Ask your doctor to suggest options that may be right for you.

    If Stomach Cancer Spreads

    Stomach Cancer â Types, Causes, Diagnosis &  Treatment

    Cancer cells can spread from the stomach to other parts of the body. This spread is called metastasis.

    Understanding how a type of cancer usually grows and spreads helps your healthcare team plan your treatment and future care. If stomach cancer spreads, it can spread to the following:

    • pancreas
    • mesentery
    • omentum
    • area around the belly button
    • uterus
    • American Cancer Society. Stomach Cancer. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society 2014: .
    • Avital, I. et al. Cancer of the stomach. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, & Rosenberg SA. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2011: 80: pp. 924-954.
    • Czito BG, Palta M & Willett CG. Stomach cancer. Halperin EC, Wazer DE, Perez CA et al. Perez and Brady’s Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2013: 58.
    • What You Need to Know About Stomach Cancer.
    • Stemmermann, G. N. & Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M. Gastric cancer: pathology. Kelsen, D. P., Daly, J. M., Kern, S. E., Levin, B., Tepper, J. E., & Van Cutsem, E. . Principles and Practice of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2008: 21: pp. 257-274.
    • Yao JC, Crane CH, Sano T, et al. Carcinoma of the stomach. Hong WK, et al . Holland Frei Cancer Medicine. 8th ed. People’s Medical Publishing House 2010: 84: pp. 1086-1108.

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