Could I Get A Second Cancer After Treatment
People whove had stomach cancer can still get other cancers. They do not get second cancers at an increased rate overall, but they do seem to have an increased risk of cancers of the thyroid and small intestine.
Experts do not recommend any additional testing to look for second cancers in people whove had stomach cancer. Still, its important to let your doctor know about any new symptoms or problems you have, because they could be caused by the stomach cancer coming back, or by a new disease or second cancer.
Like other people, survivors of stomach cancer should follow the American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer and stay away from tobacco products, which increase the risk of many types of cancers.
To help maintain good health, survivors should also:
- Get to and stay at a healthy weight.
- Stay physically active and limit time spent sitting or lying down.
- Follow a healthy eating pattern that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and that limits or avoids red and processed meats, sugary drinks, and highly processed foods.
- Avoid or limit alcohol. If you do drink, have no more than 1 drink per day for women or 2 per day for men.
These steps may also lower the risk of some other health problems.
Patterns Of Relapse And Metastasis
Gastric cancer can spread via direct extension, lymphatic and hematogenous routes and also peritoneal invasion. There are 5 ways of recurrence following surgical removal of gastric carcinoma: lymph node, remnant stomach, local, peritoneal and hematogenous recurrence. Sixty percent to 72% of gastric cancer patients succumb to recurrences within the first 2 years. Hematogenous or lymphatic spreads without intra abdominal metastases occur rarely. It may be postulated that gastric cancer prefers to spread intra abdominally, and that locoregional control is therefore an important issue in treatment strategy . Locoregional recurrence rates vary from 25% to 96% depending on different detection methods and study populations. Several prognostic factors have been identified.
Causes And Risk Factors
Abnormal cell growth in the stomach lining causes stomach cancer to grow. But each person has different risk factors that increase individual risk for developing the disease.
The most significant risk factor for developing stomach cancer is having a Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection, according to Moffitt Cancer Center. Long-term infections can cause pre-cancerous changes in the stomach lining.
Some factors, such as age and sex, cant be controlled. Others, such as lifestyle and diet, can be controlled.
Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk.
Factors that may increase stomach cancer risk include:
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Symptoms And Signs Of Stomach Cancer
Initial symptoms of stomach cancer are nonspecific, often consisting of dyspepsia suggestive of peptic ulcer. Patients and physicians alike tend to dismiss symptoms or treat the patient for acid disease. Later, early satiety may occur if the cancer obstructs the pyloric region or if the stomach becomes nondistensible secondary to linitis plastica. Dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing. The condition results from impeded transport of liquids, solids, or both from the pharynx to the stomach. Dysphagia should not be confused with globus sensation… read more may result if cancer in the cardiac region of the stomach obstructs the esophageal outlet. Loss of weight or strength, usually resulting from dietary restriction, is common. Massive hematemesis or melena is uncommon, but secondary anemia may follow occult blood loss. Occasionally, the first symptoms are caused by metastasis .
Physical findings may be unremarkable or limited to heme-positive stools. Late in the course, abnormalities include an epigastric mass umbilical, left supraclavicular, or left axillary lymph nodes hepatomegaly and an ovarian or rectal mass. Pulmonary, central nervous system, and bone lesions may occur.
Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation For Stages Ii And Iii Gastric Cancer
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for stages II and III gastric cancer include the following:
All newly diagnosed patients with stages II and III gastric cancer should be considered candidates for clinical trials.
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If The Cancer Comes Back
If the cancer does recur at some point, your treatment options will depend on where the cancer is located, what treatments youve had before, and your health. For more information on how recurrent cancer is treated, see Treatment Choices Based on the Extent of Stomach Cancer.
For more general information on recurrence, you may also want to see Understanding Recurrence.
Cellular Classification Of Gastric Cancer
The two major types of gastric adenocarcinoma include the following:
Intestinal adenocarcinomas are well differentiated, and the cells tend to arrange themselves in tubular or glandular structures. The terms tubular, papillary, and mucinous are assigned to the various types of intestinal adenocarcinomas. Rarely, adenosquamous cancers can occur.
Diffuse adenocarcinomas are undifferentiated or poorly differentiated, and they lack a gland formation. Clinically, diffuse adenocarcinomas can give rise to infiltration of the gastric wall .
Some tumors can have mixed features of intestinal and diffuse types.
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Symptoms Of Gastric Cancer Include Indigestion And Stomach Discomfort Or Pain
In the early stages of gastric cancer, the following symptoms may occur:
- Indigestion and stomach discomfort.
Check with your doctor if you have any of these problems.
Can I Lower My Risk Of Stomach Cancer Progressing Or Coming Back
If you have stomach cancer, you probably want to know if there are things you can do that might lower your risk of the cancer growing or coming back, such as exercising, eating a certain type of diet, or taking nutritional supplements. Unfortunately, its not yet clear if there are things you can do that will help.
Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, staying at a healthy weight, getting regular physical activity, and avoiding or limiting alcohol are all linked with a lower risk of getting stomach cancer. But we dont know if these types of changes affect the risk of cancer progressing or coming back. However, we do know that they can have positive effects on your health that can extend beyond your risk of cancer.
Tobacco use has clearly been linked to stomach cancer, so not smoking might help reduce your risk. We dont know for certain if this will help, but we do know that it can help improve your appetite and overall health. It can also reduce the chance of developing other types of cancer. If you want to quit smoking and need help, call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345. You can also learn more in our Guide to Quitting Tobacco.
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Can You Survive Stomach Cancer
Is stomach cancer curable? Is stomach cancer treatment success rate good? Factors such as young age, early diagnosis, proper treatment, etc helps in curing stomach cancer. Overall or average survival rate for early stages by National Cancer Institute is about 70%, where the stomach cancer survival rate combined for all stages for five-years is estimated to be about 30%.
Other Causes Of Stomach Cancer
In addition to the findings on diet, nutrition and physical activity outlined above, other established causes of stomach cancer include:
Smoking is a cause of stomach cancer. It is estimated that 11 per cent of cases worldwide are attributable to tobacco use.
Helicobacter pylori infection is a cause of stomach non-cardia cancer. Also, infection with Epstein-Barr virus is under investigation as a contributor to stomach cancer.
- industrial chemical exposure
Occupational exposure to dusty and high-temperature environments such as woodprocessing and food-machine operators has been associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer. Other industries including rubber manufacturing, coal mining, metal processing and chromium production have also been associated with an elevated risk of this cancer.
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Prognosis And Survival Rates Of Stomach Cancer
When someone is diagnosed with stomach cancer, their doctor will give them a prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors opinion of how likely it is that the cancer will spread and the chances of getting better. A prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the persons age and general health.
Generally, the earlier stomach cancer is diagnosed the better the chances of successful treatment. If the cancer is found after it has spread from the stomach, the prognosis is not usually as good.
If you have stomach cancer, your doctor will talk to you about your individual situation when working out your prognosis. Every persons experience is different, and there is support available to you.
Age Diet And Stomach Disease Can Affect The Risk Of Developing Gastric Cancer
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following:
- Having any of the following medical conditions:
- Eating a diet high in salted, smoked foods and low in fruits and vegetables.
- Eating foods that have not been prepared or stored properly.
- Being older or male.
- Having a mother, father, sister, or brother who has had stomach cancer.
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Help With Nutrition Issues
For many people, stomach cancer and its treatment can affect how they eat and absorb nutrition. Nausea can be a problem during and after some treatments, and some people lose their appetite . People also often find they need to change the way they eat, such as eating smaller, more frequent meals instead of a few larger ones each day.
Your cancer care team may refer you to a dietitian, an expert in nutrition, who can help you adjust to changes in your eating habits and can give you ideas on how to deal with some of the nutrition issues that might arise from the cancer or its treatment.
If you have lost or are losing weight, or if you are having trouble eating, do the best you can. Eat what appeals to you. Eat what you can, when you can. You might find it helps to eat small portions every 2 to 3 hours until you feel better. Try to keep in mind that these problems usually improve over time.
If part or all of your stomach has been removed, you might need to eat smaller amounts of food more often. Your doctor or dietitian may also recommend that you stay upright for some time after eating. Your health care team can help you adjust your diet if you are having problems eating.
People who have had surgery especially if they had the upper part of their stomach removed will probably need to have blood work done regularly to check their vitamin and mineral levels. Some people might need vitamin supplements, which could include B12 injections.
Stomach Cancer Survival Rate By Age
Surviving adult cancers is extremely dependent on the age at which a person is diagnosed. The most favorable condition for positive treatment of stomach cancer is the diagnosis at a young age. The American Cancer Society stated that stomach cancer is found mostly affecting people who are above 60 years. Another estimate suggests that the average age of people diagnosed with stomach cancer is above 65 years.
Cancer research UK has stated that highest number of stomach cancer survivors are between 15-40 years of age and lowest when a person crosses above 75 years of age.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Stomach Cancer
Stomach cancer may not cause symptoms in the early stages and the symptoms of stomach cancer are usually common for other medical conditions. This is why stomach cancer is often diagnosed when the cancer is more advanced. There are several possible symptoms:
- Unexplained weight loss or loss of appetite.
- Difficulty swallowing.
Having one or more of these risk factors doesnt mean you will develop stomach cancer. Often there is no clear reason for getting stomach cancer. If you are worried about your risk factors, ask your doctor for advice.
Survival Statistics For Stomach Cancer
Survival statistics for stomach cancer are very general estimates and must be interpreted very carefully. Because these statistics are based on the experience of groups of people, they cannot be used to predict a particular persons chances of survival.
There are many different ways to measure and report cancer survival statistics. Your doctor can explain the statistics for stomach cancer and what they mean to you.
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Ajcc Prognostic Stage Groups And Tnm Definitions
The American Joint Committee on Cancer has designated staging by TNM classification to define gastric cancer.
|T = primary tumor N = regional lymph node M = distant metastasis p = pathological.|
|aReprinted with permission from AJCC: Stomach. In: Amin MB, Edge SB, Greene FL, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2017, pp. 20320.|
|0||Tis = Carcinoma in situ: intraepithelial tumor without invasion of the lamina propria, high-grade dysplasia.|
|N0 = No regional lymph node metastasis.|
|M0 = No distant metastasis.|
How Long Can Someone Live With Stage 4 Cancer
Doctors usually describe a persons outlook using the 5-year survival rate. These are calculated based on data from thousands of other people with a similar cancer at a similar stage.
The original location of the cancer determines its type. Survival rates vary, depending on the type of cancer and how far it has spread within the body.
Below, we describe the survival rates for some of the most common forms of cancer in stage 4:
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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Stomach Cancer
The outlook for stomach cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. People in the early stages of stomach cancer have a much greater rate of survival than those at a later stage:
- If stomach cancer is found in its earliest stage and can be removed with an endoscope, the five-year survival rate is higher than 90 percent.
- If the cancer is found after it has spread to areas surrounding the stomach, the five-year survival rate is 28 percent.
- If the cancer has spread to areas beyond those surrounding the stomach, the five-year survival rate is 4 percent.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 02/17/2019.
Thriving While Dying From Cancer
Its an oxymoron to live while you die. But after eight successful cancer battles, Im here to promise you that its more possible than you know. One critical way Ive thrived through and in-between cancer diagnoses is by committing myself to my health and disease prevention.
Over the years, knowing my body when it feels well has helped me identify when things arent right. Instead of wishing it away or ignoring my bodys signals for help, I act.
Im not a hypochondriac, but I know when to go to the doctor to be checked. And time and time again, it has proven to be my most fruitful tactic. In 2015, when I visited my oncologist to report severe new aches and pains, I suspected my cancer had returned.
These werent the usual arthritis pains. I knew something was wrong. My doctor immediately ordered tests, which confirmed my suspicions.
The diagnosis felt grim: metastatic breast cancer, which had spread to my bones. I started radiation immediately, followed by chemotherapy. It did the trick.
My doctor said I would die before Christmas. Two years later, Im living and thriving with cancer again.
While I was told that this diagnosis has no cure, I havent given up hope or the will to fight and live a meaningful life. So, I went into thriving mode!
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Incidence And Survival Rates
Stomach cancer also known as gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Around 952,000 new cases of stomach cancer were recorded globally in 2012, accounting for seven per cent of all new cases of cancer.
Men are twice as likely as women to develop stomach cancer, and it is more common in older adults over the age of 50. For example, the average age at diagnosis in the US is 72 years.
Stomach cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer. Symptoms often only appear at a late stage, which contributes to a poor prognosis. For example, in Europe and the US the five-year survival rate of stomach cancer is about 25 to 28 per cent, increasing to about 63 per cent if the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. However, these survival rates are worse in less developed countries where stomach cancer is typically detected at a more advanced stage.
About 70 per cent of cases of stomach cancer occur in less developed countries with about half of all cases in Eastern Asia, particularly China.
Globally, overall incidence rates of stomach cancer are declining. This is attributed to a decrease in Helicobacter pylori infection and the use of refrigeration to preserve foods rather than using salt. Stomach cancer is classified into different types according to location of the tumour. Stomach cardia cancer occurs at the top part of the stomach closest to the oesophagus, and stomach non-cardia cancer occurs in all other areas of the stomach.